Presentation on theme: "The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography Chapter 3: MigrationThe Cultural Landscape:An Introduction to Human Geography
2 Warm UpWith a teammate, LIST the reasons people would migrate from one place to another.
3 Push/Pull Factors Push Factors Pull Factors Not enough jobs Job opportunitiesFew opportunitiesBetter living conditionsPrimitive conditionsPolitical and/or religious freedomDesertificationEnjoymentFamine or droughtEducationPolitical fear or persecutionBetter medical careSlavery or forced laborAttractive climatesPoor medical careSecurityLoss of wealthFamily linksNatural disastersIndustryDeath threatsBetter chances of marryingLack of political or religious freedomPollutionPoor housingLandlord/tenant issuesBullyingDiscriminationPoor chances of marryingCondemned Housing (Radon Gas etc.)War/Civil War
4 Migration A type of mobility Emigration Immigration Migration is a permanent move to a new locationMigration = relocation diffusionEmigrationImmigration
5 Why Do People Migrate? Reasons for migration Most people migrate for economic reasonsPush and pull factorsEconomic: people move away from places with poor economic opportunities and toward places with better onesCultural factorsForced migration (e.g., slavery, refugees)Political factorsEnvironmental factors
7 Why Do People Migrate? Reasons for migration Push and pull factors Intervening obstaclesHistorically, intervening obstacles = environmentalToday, often political boundaries and lawsTransportation technology = limited environmental intervening obstaclesIntervening opportunitiesAlong the way people do not make it to their planned destination as they often find other “opportunities” –JobsLove?
8 Why Do People Migrate? Distance of migration Internal migration Two types:Interregional migration = movement from one region to anotherIntraregional migration = movement within a region
9 Why Do People Migrate? Distance of migration International migration Two types:VoluntaryForcedMigration transitionInternational migration is most common in countries that are in stage 2 of the demographic transition
11 Why Do People Migrate? Characteristics of migrants Most long-distance migrants areMaleAdultsIndividualsFamilies with children = less common
12 Why Do People Migrate? Characteristics of migrants Gender Traditionally, males outnumbered femalesIn the United States today, 55 percent of immigrants = femaleFamily statusIn the United States today, about 40 percent of immigrants = young adults, aged 25–39
14 Where Are Migrants Distributed? Global migration patternsNet out-migration: Asia, Africa, and Latin AmericaNet in-migration: North America, Europe, and OceaniaThe United States has the largest foreign-born populationAs of 2006, the United States accepts more legal immigrants as permanent residents than all other countries in the world combined
16 Where Are Migrants Distributed? U.S. migration patternsThree main eras of migrations Colonial migration from England (2 mil) and Africa (400K)Nineteenth-century immigration from Europe1840s and 1850s: Primarily from Ireland and Germany1880s and 1890s: Primarily NORTHERN AND WESTERN Europe, including Norway and Sweden, as well as Germany and Irelands: Primarily from Southern and Eastern Europe, including Italy and RussiaRecent immigration from LDCs (1960s-today)Latin America (13-25 million)Asia (7-10 million)Why?
17 Migration to the United States Northern and Western EuropeFigure 3-8
19 Legal Migration to the United States from Latin America 2008 statistics(low end)Figure 3-9
20 Where Are Migrants Distributed? Impact of immigration on the United StatesLegacy of European migrationEurope’s demographic transitionStage 2 growth pushed Europeans out…WHY?65 million Europeans emigrateDiffusion of European culture – eventually assimilated (melting pot)
21 Where Are Migrants Distributed? Impact of immigration on the United StatesUnauthorized immigration2008 = estimated at least 11.9 million unauthorized/ undocumented/illegal immigrants in the U.S. (Pew Research)2007 Immigration Policy Center lists 18.1 millionAbout 5.4 percent of the U.S. civilian labor forceAround 59 percent are undocumented/illegal immigrants from Mexico2000 mile long borderBORDER
22 Where Are Migrants Distributed? Impact of immigration on the United StatesDestinationsCalifornia = one-fifth of all immigrants and one-fourth of undocumented/illegal immigrantsNew York = one-sixth of all immigrantsChain migration: Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously moved there.
24 Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Immigration policies of host countriesU.S. quota laws – limit amount from each country each yearThe Quota Act (1921) and The National Origins Act (1924) – For each country that had native-born persons already living in the U.S., 2% of their number could immigrate each year.Where would most immigrants therefore come from???Ethnic Quotas for individual countries removed in 1965Temporary migration for workGuest workersTime-contract workers
25 Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Distinguishing economic migrants from refugeesEmigrants from CubaEmigrants from HaitiEmigrants from Vietnam
26 Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? Key Issue #4
27 Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? Migration between regions of a countryU.S. settlement patternsColonial settlementEarly settlement in the interior (early 1800s)CaliforniaGold Rush in the 1840sGreat Plains settlementRecent growth of the South
28 Changing Center of the U.S. Population Figure 3-16
31 Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? Intraregional migration in the United StatesMigration from rural to urban areasPrimary reason = economic migrationMigration from urban to suburban areasPrimary reason = suburban lifestyleMigration from urban to rural areasCounterurbanization
32 Intraregional Migration in the United States Figure 3-21
33 Ravenstein’s 11 Laws of Migration The majority of migrants go only a short distance.Migration proceeds step by step. There is a process of absorption, whereby people immediately surrounding a rapidly growing town move into it and the gaps they leave are filled by migrants from more distant areas, and so on until the attractive force is spent.Migrants going long distances generally go by preference to one of the great centers of commerce or industry.Each current of migration produces a compensating counter-current.Natives of towns are less migratory than those of rural areas.Females are more migratory than males within the kingdom of their birth, but males more frequently venture beyond.Most migrants are adults: families rarely migrate out of their country of birth.Large towns grow more by migration than by natural increase.Migration increases in volume as industries and commerce develop and transport improves.The major direction of migration is from the agricultural areas to the centers of industry and commerce.The major causes of migration are economic.
34 Up next: Folk and Popular Culture The End.Up next: Folk and Popular Culture