2 Science means “having knowledge” Science means “having knowledge”. It involves trying to solve problems or determine a hypothesis.
3 Scientists use the scientific method to test a hypothesis or answer a question.
4 Steps in the Scientific Method Identify a ProblemState Observations about the ProblemForm a HypothesisDesign an ExperimentData CollectionForm a ConclusionRetest
5 IDENTIFY THE QUESTION/PROBLEM What question is being answered, problem solved, or hypothesis tested.
6 Description of objects, events ObservationsDescription of objects, eventsMay include data from all five senses (touch/texture, smell, taste, sight, sound)Could be drawings, diagrams, written wordsDo not include opinions.
7 Hypothesis An educated guess about the results Must be testable Predicts an outcome to the problemAlways support your idea with a reason!(If….then…)
8 ExperimentDesign a controlled experiment to test your hypothesis and collect dataDevelop a well planned series of proceduresEstablish the control group and the experimental groupIdentify your variables
9 ExperimentControl Group: the part of the experiment that is left alone or “natural”. Used to compare back to.
10 ExperimentExperimental Group: the part of the experiment in which a factor or variable is changed.
12 Controlled variables (constants): factors in an experiment that are NOT changed.
13 Manipulated (independent) variable: VariablesManipulated (independent) variable:factors in an experiment that are changed.Good experiments have only ONE manipulated variable.
14 Responding (dependent) variable: the factor that you are measuring. VariablesResponding (dependent) variable:the factor that you are measuring.
15 Data All the information gathered while performing the experiment. May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative.Can be organized into charts, graphs, or tables
16 Conclusion Results/Conclusions: Analyze your data to determine the final outcome of the experimentWhat do you NOW believe as a result of the experiment or observations?Restate your hypothesis (or at least relate your findings to it)Support your claim with at least 2 pieces of dataUse good explanatory language
17 Share your results:Publish your findings so that others may benefit from your work.
18 Verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers. THeoriesExplanation of a set of related observations or events based upon well tested hypotheses.Verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers.One scientist cannot create a theory, he/she can only create a hypothesis.Examples: The theory of evolution
19 Examples: The law of gravity lawsA statement of fact meant to explain, in concise terms, an action or set of actions.Generally accepted to be true and universal, and can sometimes be expressed in terms of a single mathematical equation. Scientific laws are similar to mathematical postulates. They don’t really need any complex external proofs; they are accepted at face value based upon the fact that they have always been observed to be true.Examples: The law of gravity