# THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Using the Scientific Method.

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THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE Using the Scientific Method

The Scientific Method A logical, organized way of solving problems. Define the Problem Collect Background Information Form a Hypothesis Test the Hypothesis Make and Record Observations Draw a Conclusion

Defining the Problem & Collecting Background Information Identify the problem. Example: What are the effects of acid rain on salamanders? Collect information about the problem. Example: We should know the normal development of salamanders as well as the characteristics of areas that are affected by acid rain.

FORMULATE A HYPOTHESIS An educated guess A proposed answer to the question or problem. A statement that can be tested

TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS p.1/2 An experiment is a controlled procedure designed to test a hypothesis. In an experiment, one variable, or condition, is changed and the response of another variable is measured.

THE EXPERIMENT p.2/2 Independent variable: the condition that is varied (or changed). Dependent variable: the condition that responds to the changes in the I.V. To be a controlled experiment, it must have two identical groups: Experimental group- the group that is exposed to the changes in the I.V. Control group- the group that is not exposed to changes.

MAKING & RECORDING OBSERVATIONS p. 1/4 Must keep careful records. Must state how the experiment was planned, carried out, materials & equipment used, and how long it took. Must record all observations made.

MAKING & RECORDING OBSERVATIONS p.2/4 May include: drawings, tables, graphs, diagrams, written observations, photographs or even sound recordings.

OBSERVATIONS VS. INFERENCES p.3/4 Observation- an examination of something in nature. Detected by any of the five senses. Inference- a judgement based on your observation. It is a personal opinion.

DRAWING CONCLUSIONS p.1/2 The answer to a scientific question is formulated by drawing a conclusion based on data (scientific facts collected during the experiment) Statistics help form the conclusion.

CONCLUSIONS p.2/2 Before accepting conclusions, scientists retest their hypotheses several times. Later other scientists repeat the experiment until the hypothesis and the conclusion are supported or rejected.

LAW/THEORY p.1/2 When a hypothesis explains how “facts of nature” occurs, it becomes scientific principle or law. Example: Law of Gravity When a hypothesis explains why “natural” events occur through observations and investigations over a long period of time, it becomes a theory. Example: Theory of Evolution

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