Presentation on theme: "A Review for Zoology Class"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Review for Zoology Class Scientific MethodA Review for Zoology Class
2 Have a problem to solve???Anytime we have a question that needs to be answered or a problem that needs to be solved we go through a process known as the “scientific method” to help us solve that problem.Every problem is not solved in the same way. These steps represent a “typical” scientific process.
3 Steps in the Scientific Method Question/ProblemObservationsHypothesisExperimentData CollectionConclusionRetest
4 Observations Gathered through your senses A scientist notices something in their natural world
5 ObservationsAn example of an observation might be noticing that many salamanders near a pond have curved, not straight, tails
6 Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem (an educated guess) Must be testableSometimes written as If…Then… statementsPredicts an outcome
7 HypothesisAn example of a hypothesis might be that the salamanders have curved tails due to a pollutant in the moist soil where they live.
8 A procedure to test the hypothesis. ExperimentA procedure to test the hypothesis.
9 Variable – factor in the experiment that is being tested
10 A good or “valid” experiment will only have ONE true variable!
11 Controls and Variables What do you already know?
12 Scientific Experiments Follow Rules An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens.
13 The Control VariableThe experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not effect the outcome.Those factors are called control variables.
14 What is the Purpose of a Control? Remember the Controls are factors NOT being tested -Controls or control groups are used for COMPARISON.
15 Other VariablesThe factor that is changed is known as the independent variable.The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable.
16 Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school.You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one.Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself.
17 What are the Variables in Your Experiment? Varying the route is the independent variableThe time it takes is the dependent variableKeeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable.
18 One more thing… it is best to make several trials with each independent variable.
20 Remember: To be a Valid Experiment: Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groups.There should be only one true variable – one factor you are changing.
21 Data Results of the experiment. May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative (descriptive words).
22 DataMust be organized.Can be organized into charts, tables, or graphs.
23 ConclusionThe answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment.
24 RetestIn order to verify the results, experiments must be retested. Good experiments are valid and reliable.
25 Solving a Problem 1)Identify a Problem 2) State Observations about the problem3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…)4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis5) Collect Data6) Form a Conclusion7) Retest
26 or “hitting the bulls eye” Accuracy Vs. PrecisionAccuracy – gettingthe right answeror “hitting the bulls eye”Precision – the ability to be accurate over and over, consistency in answers/skill
27 Theory Versus LawScientific Theory - A logical explanation of observed events. Example – Theory of evolution.Scientific Law - A theory that has been tested and widely accepted as true.Example – Law of thermodynamics.