2 Scientific MethodAn organized approach used to solve a problem or solution.A list of steps that is not set in stone, rather it is used as a guide or frame for problem solving.
3 Hypothesis versus Theory Established ideaFactualExperimentsDataHypothesis:Explanation of an ObservationOutcomeIf I do….then I expect……correct or incorrect
4 Controlled Experiments ExperimentalThe part of the experiment in which a factor or variable is changed.Control:the part of the experiment that is left alone or “natural”.Used to compare back to
5 Variables Variables are parts of an experiment that can be changed. Control (constant variables): factors in an experiment that are NOT changed.
6 Experimental Variables: Independent (manipulated) Variable: factors in an experiment that are changed.Good experiments have only ONE manipulated variable.Dependent (responding) Variable: responds to changes in the independent variable.Example: Measure growth in height as a result of no fertilizer
7 Observation vs. Inference Description of objects, eventsMay include data from all five senses (touch/texture, smell, taste, sight, sound)Could be drawings, diagrams, written wordsDo not include opinions.Drawing conclusions based on observationsOften provide a reason for the event/object being observed.Based on previous knowledge.
8 Data versus Opinion…... Data: Factual Measurable Replicates Opinion: PersonalInferences versus observations?bias
9 Scientific Data Must Be….. MeasurableQuantifiableNOT opinion or judgment
10 7 Steps of the Scientific Method Problem or QuestionResearchHypothesisExperimentCollect and Analyze DataConclusionCommunicate Results
11 Identify the questionWhat question is being answered, problem solved, or hypothesis tested?Leads to observationsFor example, “How many drops of water fit on a penny?”
12 Background research Research the problem using quality sources. Ask questions and read everything you can about the problem you have chosen.Study the method of measurement you will use to quantify your observations if it is one you are not familiar with.
13 State you hypothesisConstruct a Hypothesis: A hypothesis is an explanation of an observation about how things work:"If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen."You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure, and of course, your hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help you answer your original question.
14 Design an experimentThe experiment tests whether your hypothesis is true or false.It is important for the experiment to be a fair test.Conduct a fair test by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same.Repeat the experiments several times to make sure that the first results weren't just an accident.
15 Collect and Analyze data Once the experiment is complete, analyze the data to see if your hypothesis is true or false.Scientists often find that their hypothesis was false, and in such cases they will construct a new hypothesis starting the entire process of the scientific method over again.Even if they find that their hypothesis was true, they may want to test it again in a new way.
16 CONCLUSIONA conclusion summarizes how the results support or contradict the original hypothesis.Summarize the results in a few sentences and use this summary to support or refute the hypothesis.Include key facts from your background research to help explain your results as needed.Summarize and evaluate your experimental procedure, making comments about its success and effectiveness.Suggest changes in the experimental procedure (or design) and/or possibilities for further study.
17 Communicate resultsCommunicate the results to others in a final report.publishing their final report in a scientific journalpresenting their results on a poster at a scientific meeting.