2 What causes Depression? Family HistoryHaving a family members who has depression may increase a person’s riskImbalances of certain chemicals in the brain may lead to depression
3 Major Life ChangesPositive or negative events can trigger depression. Examples include the death of a loved one or a promotion.Major Illnesses such as heart attack, stroke or cancer may trigger depression.
4 Certain medications used alone or in combination can cause side effects much like the symptoms of depression.Use of Alcohol or other Drugs can lead to or worsen depression.Depression can also occur for no apparent reason!
5 Symptoms of Depression Vary from person to person2 key signs are loss of interest in things you like to do and sadness or irritability
6 Additional Signs include: Changes in feelings which may include:Feeling emptyInability to enjoy anythingHopelessnessLoss of sexual desireLoss of warm feelings for family or friendsFeelings of self blame or guiltLoss of self esteemInexplicable crying spells, sadness or irritability
7 Changes in behavior and attitude These may include:General slowing downNeglect of responsibilities and appearancePoor memoryInability to concentrateSuicidal thoughts, feelings or behaviorsDifficulty making decisions
8 Physical Complaints These may include: Sleep disturbances such as early morning waking, sleeping too much or insomniaLack of energyLoss of appetiteWeight loss or gainUnexplained headaches or backachesStomachaches, indigestion or changes in bowl habits
9 Common Types of Depression Major DepressionDysthymiaBipolar DisorderSeasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
10 Major Depression This type causes symptoms that may: Begin suddenly, possibly triggered by a loss, crisis or changeInterfere with normal functioningContinue for months or yearsIt is possible for a person to have only one episode of major depression. It is more common for episodes to be long lasting or to occur several times during a person’s life
11 DysthymiaPeople with this illness are mildly depressed for years. They function fairly well on a daily basis but their relationships suffer over time.
12 Bipolar DisorderPeople with this type of illness change back and forth between periods of depression and periods of mania (an extreme high).Symptoms of mania may include:Less need for sleepOverconfidenceRacing thoughtsReckless behaviorIncreased energyMood changes are usually gradual, but can be sudden
13 Season Affective Disorder This is a depression that results from changes in the season. Most cases begin in the fall or winter, or when there is a decrease in sunlight.
14 Professional treatment is necessary for all these types of depression.
15 Treatment for Depression MedicationAntidepressants can help ease the symptoms of depression and return a person to normal functioning. Antidepressants are not habit forming.
16 PsychotherapyThis can help many depressed people understand themselves and cope with their problems. For example:Interpersonal therapy works to change relationships that affect depressionCognitive-behavioral therapy helps people change negative thinking and behavior patterns
17 If you or someone you know has symptoms of depression… Take Action!
18 See a doctor for a complete check up. Go to the counseling center and talk to a counselor.Talk things over with a friend, family member or a residential life staff member.
19 Don’t expect too much of yourself Take a breakGet some exerciseAvoid extra stress and big changes
20 Things to do Reduce or eliminate the use of alcohol or drugs Exercise or engage in some form of physical activityEat a proper, well-balanced diet
21 Obtain an adequate amount of sleep Seek emotional support from family and friendsFocus on positive aspects of your lifePace yourself, modify your schedule, and set realistic goals
22 Things to AvoidDon’t make long-term commitments or important decisions unless necessaryDon’t assume things are hopelessDon’t engage in “emotional reasoning” (i.e.: because I feel awful, my life is terrible)Don’t assume responsibility for events which are outside of your controlDon’t avoid treatment as a way of coping
23 Intervening with a depressed friend Be empathetic and understandingDon’t try to “cheer up” a depressed personAvoid critical or shaming statementsChallenge expressions of hopelessnessEmpathize with feelings of sadness, grief, anger and frustration
24 Helping a depressed friend… Don’t argue about how bad things areDon’t insist that depression or sadness are the wrong feelings to be experiencingDon’t become angry even though your efforts may be resisted or rejected
25 Helping a depressed friend… Advocate for their recovery from depressionEmphasize that depression is treatableSeek consultationEncourage them to seek help, go with them to the counseling centerBe supportive of counselor or doctor suggestions