Presentation on theme: "Georgia Studies Unit 5: The New South Lesson 2: Social and Political Change Study Presentation."— Presentation transcript:
Georgia Studies Unit 5: The New South Lesson 2: Social and Political Change Study Presentation
Lesson 2: Social and Political Change ESSENTIAL QUESTION : –How did influential African Americans influence social, political, and economic change?
Separate But Equal Civil Rights: rights a person has as a citizen Jim Crow laws passed to separate blacks and whites; legal basis for segregation (separation of people based on race) Plessy v. Ferguson: Homer Plessy, in an act of planned civil disobedience, was arrested for sitting in a white only train car. Plessy, who was only 1/8 black, was considered colored in Louisiana. Supreme Court decided that segregation (Jim Crow Laws) was allowed by federal law in public institutions as long as they were “separate but equal” – decision in place until 1954 (Brown v. Board of Education).
A Loss of Voting Rights Rules created to keep African Americans in Georgia from voting (disenfranchisement): –Poll tax: a tax paid to vote –Voters had to own property –Voters had to pass a literacy test (which was determined by the poll worker and could be different for different people) –Grandfather clause: only those men whose fathers or grandfathers were eligible to vote in 1867 could vote –Gerrymandering: election districts drawn up to divide the African American voters
Racial Violence Race riots and terrorist activities (like the 1906 Atlanta Riot and the lynching of Leo Frank) increased during the New South (1877-1918). White Supremacist Groups, like the Ku Klux Klan, continued to spread and grow throughout the South during this time period. Racial violence in the United States (particularly in the South) continued for decades and would not begin to slow until the civil rights movement of the 1960’s.
Booker T. Washington Outstanding civil rights leader of the era President of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama Supported good relations between blacks and whites Worked to improve the lives of African Americans through economic independence Believed social and political equality would come with improved economic conditions and education (known as accommodationism). Gave the famous “Atlanta Compromise” speech in 1895; discussed his ideas of shared responsibility and the importance of education over equality.
W. E. B. DuBois Professor at Atlanta University Recognized the importance of speeches given by Booker T. Washington but did not agree with accommodationism Believed in “action” if African Americans and whites were to understand and accept each other Thought Booker T. Washington was too accepting of social injustice Began urging black activists to organize together in protest against segregation and discrimination.
African Americans Organize W.E.B. DuBois founded the Niagara movement; group which met in Niagara Falls to assemble a list of demands, which included the end of segregation and discrimination NAACP (1909): National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Worked for the rights of African Americans W.E.B. DuBois left Atlanta to work for the NAACP in New York National Urban League formed in 1910 –Worked to solve social problems of African Americans in cities –Assisted people moving from rural South to urban North
John and Lugenia Burns Hope John Hope was a Civil rights leader from Augusta, GA President of Atlanta University Like DuBois, believed that African Americans should actively work for equality Part of group that organized NAACP Hope’s wife, Lugenia, worked to improve sanitation, roads, healthcare and education for African American neighborhoods in Atlanta
Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company Alonzo Herndon started barber business 1905: Purchased small insurance company and managed it well Now one of the largest African American businesses in the US Worth over $200 million and operates in 17 states
Women’s Suffrage Suffrage: the right to vote Seneca Falls, NY – famous meeting of suffragettes 1920: 19 th Amendment gives women the right to vote – Georgia did not ratify (approve) the amendment