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Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois

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1 Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois
Two Paths to Ending Jim Crow

2 Civil War Amendments 13th – Ended slavery
14th – Granted citizenship to former slaves 15th – Gave African American men the right to ovte

3 Evolution of Jim Crow Laws
Disenfranchisement of African Americans Grandfather clauses Poll tax Literacy tests Intimidation and fear

4 Jim Crow Laws: Systematic State-Level Legal Codes of Segregation
Transportation Schools Libraries Drinking fountains Morgues and Funeral Parlors

5 Plessy v. Ferguson The Case: Homer Plessy, 1/8th black, was arrested for sitting in the “white car” of a Louisiana train in violation of that state’s “Separate Car Act” The case was appealed to Supreme Court

6 Supreme Court Ruling (1896)
The Ruling: Separate facilities were lawful as long as they were equal Only one dissenter, Justice John Harlan, wrote “Our Constitution is color blind.”

7 Plessy v. Ferguson The result: Legalized Jim Crow segregation until 1954 (Brown v. Board of Education)

8 Two African American Leaders, Two Diverse Backgrounds, Two Sets of Beliefs
Booker T. Washington W.E.B. DuBois

9 Booker T. Washington Born a slave in southwestern Virginia
Believed in vocational education for blacks Founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama Believed in gradual equality Accused of being an “Uncle Tom” Uncle Tom was the main character in Uncle Tom’s cabin Term came to mean one who was excessively subservient Wrote Up From Slavery (1901)

10 Asked whites to give job opportunities to black people
Outlined his views on race at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta – “Atlanta Compromise” Felt that black people should work to gain economic security before equal rights Believed black people should “earn” equality by demonstrating their skills Developed programs for job training and vocational skills at Tuskegee Institute Asked whites to give job opportunities to black people Was popular with white leaders in the North and South But unpopular with other black leaders Associated with members of the Urban League, which emphasized jobs and training for blacks

11 W.E.B. DuBois Born in 1868 in Massachusetts
First African American to received a Ph.D. from Harvard Wanted immediate quality between blacks and whites Wanted classical education for blacks Wrote The Souls of Black Folk (1903) Involved in the Niagara Movement, which led to the NAACP

12 Strongly opposed to Washington’s tolerance of segregation
Demanded immediate equality for blacks Felt it was wrong for citizens to have to “earn their rights”

13 Pharmacy class at Howard University in Washington, D.C.
Pharmaceutical laboratory, Howard University, Washington, DC, ca REPRODUCTION No.: LC-USZ (b&w film copy neg.)

14 Library at Howard University
Howard University library, about 1890 (Courtesy of Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University Archives)

15 Carpentry class at Tuskegee Institute (currently Tuskegee University)
From the collections of the Alabama Department of Archives and History

16 Senior class in Agricultural Education at Tuskegee Institute
From the collections of the Alabama Department of Archives and History

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