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Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois: Two Paths to Ending Jim Crow

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Presentation on theme: "Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois: Two Paths to Ending Jim Crow"— Presentation transcript:

1 Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois: Two Paths to Ending Jim Crow

2 Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution
With the passage of these amendments to the Constitution, African Americans expected all of the rights of citizenship. African American males specifically expected the right to vote because the 15th Amendment stated, “The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”

3 Evolution of the Jim Crow South
Disenfranchisement of African Americans g Grandfather Clause g Poll Tax Literacy Test g Intimidation and Fear

4 Systematic State-Level Legal Codes of Segregation
Jim Crow Laws Systematic State-Level Legal Codes of Segregation g Transportation g Schools g Libraries g Drinking Fountains g Morgues and Funeral Parlors

5 Plessy vs. Ferguson The Case: Homer Plessy, 1/8th black, was arrested for sitting in the “white car” of a Louisiana train in violation of that state’s “Separate Car Act.” The case was appealed to Supreme Court.

6 Supreme Court Ruling 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson
The Ruling: SEPARATE facilities were lawful as long as they were EQUAL. Justice John Harlan, the lone dissenter wrote, “Our Constitution is color-blind.” Supreme Court in 1896

7 Plessy v. Ferguson The Result: Legalized Jim Crow Segregation until 1954 (Brown v. Board of Education)

8 Pharmacy class at Howard University in Washington, D.C.
Pharmaceutical laboratory, Howard University, Washington, DC, ca REPRODUCTION No.: LC-USZ (b&w film copy neg.)

9 Library at Howard University
Howard University library, about 1890 (Courtesy of Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University Archives)

10 Carpentry class at Tuskegee Institute (currently Tuskegee University)
From the collections of the Alabama Department of Archives and History

11 Senior class in Agricultural Education at Tuskegee Institute
From the collections of the Alabama Department of Archives and History

12 Two African Americans, Two Diverse Backgrounds
Booker T. Washington W.E.B. DuBois

13 Booker T. Washington Outlined his views on race relations in a speech at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta – “Atlanta Compromise” Felt that black people should work to gain economic security before equal rights Believed black people will “earn” equality

14 Booker T. Washington Developed programs for job training and vocational skills at Tuskegee Institute Asked whites to give job opportunities to black people Was popular with white leaders in the North and South

15 Booker T. Washington Was unpopular with many black leaders
Associated with leaders of the Urban League which emphasized jobs and training for blacks

16 Booker T. Washington g Born a slave in southwestern Virginia
g Believed in vocational education for blacks g Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama g Believed in gradual equality The slang term “Uncle Tom” is used in the African American or black community to describe someone who is perceived as overly ingratiating in interactions with white people. The term is meant to imply that the Uncle Tom is subservient and excessively deferential, behaving as someone of a lesser class or social status rather than treating whites as equals. Usually, this term is used as an insult. (definition from Accused of being an “Uncle Tom” g Received much white support g Wrote Up From Slavery (1901)

17 W.E.B. DuBois Views given in The Souls of Black Folks and The Crisis
Strongly opposed Booker T. Washington’s tolerance of segregation Demanded immediate equality for blacks

18 W.E.B. DuBois Felt talented black students should get a classical education Felt it was wrong to expect citizens to “earn their rights” Founded the NAACP along with other black and white leaders

19 W.E.B. DuBois g Born in 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts
Well educated-First African American to receive Ph.D. from Harvard Wanted immediate equality between blacks and whites g Wanted classical higher education for blacks g Wrote The Souls of Black Folk (1903) g The Niagara Movement – led to NAACP

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