Presentation on theme: "The Crusades. Pope Urban II Began November 27, 1095 – Council of Claremont – Pope Urban II made a speech declaring that Byzantine emperor Alexis I Comnenus."— Presentation transcript:
Pope Urban II Began November 27, 1095 – Council of Claremont – Pope Urban II made a speech declaring that Byzantine emperor Alexis I Comnenus needed help
Why? Urban hoped to increase power in Europe Heal the schism (split) between Roman (Roman Catholic) and Byzantine (Greek Orthodox) churches Set Christian knights to fighting Muslims instead of each other
Papal Indulgence Immediate remission of all sins of those who participated in expedition – Crowd responded with war cry of first crusade- Dieu li volt!- God wills it!
People’s Crusade Supposed to be military – But tens of thousands of people responded to the battle cry Almost all killed in a battle with the Turks soon after reaching Constantinople
Jerusalem Christian knights captured Jerusalem in 1099 – Massacre of Muslim and Jewish residents of city – Crusades continued (off and on) for 200 years – First Crusade
Crusader States Divided conquered lands into four small states – Muslims sought to destroy crusader states So, Christians kept launching new crusades
Jerusalem Falls Fell to Muslims in 1187 – Leader: Salah al-Din Known to Europeans as Saladin – Third crusade failed to recapture Jerusalem but Saladin opened city to Christian pilgrims – Third Crusade
Impact Trade increased and expanded (Byzantine luxuries) Growth of money economy- peasants paid rent in money rather than grain or labor Increase papal power – But the church will argue with monarchs eventually Increase power of monarchs – Collect taxes to support crusades – Leading crusades added to prestige Legacy of religious hatred – Atrocities in Middle East (Christians and Muslims) – Against Jews in Europe
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