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Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe Lecture 9 National Celebrations Week 10, Autumn Term.

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Presentation on theme: "Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe Lecture 9 National Celebrations Week 10, Autumn Term."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe Lecture 9 National Celebrations Week 10, Autumn Term

2 Outline 1. Celebrating the nation 2. Russia 3. Ukraine 4. Poland 5. National holidays today 6. Conclusion

3 Celebrations Concretion of historical developments Concretion of historical developments Reflection of social relations Reflection of social relations Ritual, narrative, repetition Ritual, narrative, repetition Unifying, including and excluding Unifying, including and excluding

4 National celebrations Type of political celebrations Type of political celebrations Since the French Revolution common all over Europe Since the French Revolution common all over Europe In France they replaced monarchic-dynastic celebrations and, for a few years, also religious celebrations In France they replaced monarchic-dynastic celebrations and, for a few years, also religious celebrations

5 National Celebrations II National celebrations often had a middle class background National celebrations often had a middle class background In 19 th c. Europe they competed with monarchic and dynastic celebrations (often birthdays of the prince/king/emperor and members of his family) In 19 th c. Europe they competed with monarchic and dynastic celebrations (often birthdays of the prince/king/emperor and members of his family) Can be affirmative or oppositionist (for example in Germany in the first half of the 19 th c. liberal, national movement against existing order) Can be affirmative or oppositionist (for example in Germany in the first half of the 19 th c. liberal, national movement against existing order) Can stabilise or destabilise the political system Can stabilise or destabilise the political system Combination of national and dynastic celebrations possible (Germany after 1871 and partially Russia before the 1 st World War) Combination of national and dynastic celebrations possible (Germany after 1871 and partially Russia before the 1 st World War) Role in political education Role in political education all members of the nation should celebrate; during the celebration class, gender and competing affiliations should not matter; in this respect: celebration is a staging of the nation, of national unity and shows how the nation should be

6 Outline 1. Celebrating the nation 2. Russia 3. Ukraine 4. Poland 5. National holidays today 6. Conclusion

7 Autocracy and Church Every year Birthday of Emperor and family members Birthday of Emperor and family members Anniversaries of ascension to the throne Anniversaries of ascension to the throne Orthodox holidays Orthodox holidays Days of national saints (for example Alexander Nevsky) Days of national saints (for example Alexander Nevsky) Singular events 200 th anniversary of the Battle of Poltava (1909) 200 th anniversary of the Battle of Poltava (1909) 100 th anniversary of the Patriotic War (1912) 100 th anniversary of the Patriotic War (1912) 300 years Romanov Dynasty (1913) 300 years Romanov Dynasty (1913)

8 Revolution and War The anniversaries of the October Revolution: 7th,8th,9th November The anniversaries of the October Revolution: 7th,8th,9th November Days of the Red Army, the Red Navy, the Air Force, of different mass organisations Days of the Red Army, the Red Navy, the Air Force, of different mass organisations 1st May: The day of the international workers movement 1st May: The day of the international workers movement 8th March: International Womens Day 8th March: International Womens Day Death of Lenin Death of Lenin After 1945: 9th May, Victory Day After 1945: 9th May, Victory Day Anniversaries of major battles of the Second World War Anniversaries of major battles of the Second World War

9 Outline 1. Celebrating the nation 2. Russia 3. Ukraine 4. Poland 5. National holidays today 6. Conclusion

10 Poets and the State Celebration of anniversaries of famous Ukrainian poets Celebration of anniversaries of famous Ukrainian poets Shevchenko celebrations Shevchenko celebrations Anniversaries of Ukrainian organisations Anniversaries of Ukrainian organisations After 1917: Soviet celebrations After 1917: Soviet celebrations Act of Pereyaslavl 1654, unification of Russia and Ukraine – big celebrations in 1954 Act of Pereyaslavl 1654, unification of Russia and Ukraine – big celebrations in 1954 Anniversaries of Ukrainian heroes Anniversaries of Ukrainian heroes

11 Outline 1. Celebrating the nation 2. Russia 3. Ukraine 4. Poland 5. National holidays today 6. Conclusion

12 Victories and Defeats, Constitution and Independence Anniversaries of important events of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish-Lithuanian Union 1569, Battle of Grunwald 1410, etc. Anniversaries of important events of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish-Lithuanian Union 1569, Battle of Grunwald 1410, etc. Anniversaries of uprisings Anniversaries of uprisings Religious holidays, especially November 1 and 2 Religious holidays, especially November 1 and 2 Funerals and anniversaries of poets Funerals and anniversaries of poets Day of the Constitution of May 3, 1791 Day of the Constitution of May 3, 1791 Independence Day: November 11, 1918 Independence Day: November 11, 1918 Anniversaries of the nation building wars of , of the Polish-Soviet War 1920 Anniversaries of the nation building wars of , of the Polish-Soviet War 1920 Anniversaries of the Warsaw Uprising 1944 (opposition), of Victory Day (May 8, 1945), the German attack on Poland and other important events of the Second World War Anniversaries of the Warsaw Uprising 1944 (opposition), of Victory Day (May 8, 1945), the German attack on Poland and other important events of the Second World War

13 May Constitution: May 3, 1791 (Matejko, 1891)

14

15 Case Study Grunwald celebrations 1910 in Cracow

16 Functions of the celebrations of Grunwald 1. Creation of tradition 2. Creation of community 3. Creation of religious feeling 4. Creation of identity and representation of the enemy

17 Kopiec Grunwaldzki (hill dedicated to Grunwald) in Niepolomice, 1910

18 Unveiling of the Grunwald monument in Cracow July 15, 1910

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20 Grunwald monument in Cracow

21 Rota Words by Maria Konopnicka 1908 Music by Feliks Nowowiejski, Cracow 1910 Nie rzucim ziemi, skąd nasz ród. Nie damy pogrześć mowy. Polski my naród, polski lud, Królewski szczep Piastowy. Nie damy, by nas zgnębił wróg. We will not abandon the land of our clan. We will not allow our language to be buried. We are the Polish nation, the Polish people, The royal tribe of the Piasts. We will not allow the enemy to repress us. Tak nam dopomóż Bóg! Tak nam dopomóż Bóg So help us God! So help us God Do krwi ostatniej kropli z żył Bronić bedziemy ducha, Aż się rozpadnie w proch i w pył Krzyżacka zawierucha. Twierdzą nam będzie każdy próg. To the last drop of blood in our veins We will defend our soul Until into ashes and dust The Teutonic storm collapses. Every doorstep shall be our fortress. Tak nam dopomóż Bóg! Tak nam dopomóż Bóg So help us God! So help us God Nie będzie Niemiec pluł nam w twarz Ni dzieci nam germanił, Orężny wstanie hufiec nasz, Duch będzie nam hetmanił. Pójdziem, gdy zabrzmi złoty róg. The German will not spit in our face, Nor will he Germanize our children, Our battalion will armed arise, And the spirit will be our commander. We will go when the golden horn calls. Tak nam dopomóż Bóg! Tak nam dopomóż Bóg So help us God! So help us God

22 Cracow, 16 July 1910

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24 Cracow, 17 July 1910

25 Just as Grunwald marks the beginning of the consciousness of national strength, the memory of Grunwald marks the beginnings of consciousness of the people and the workers. Bishop Bandurski in his sermon held in the Church of St.. Mary on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the battle of Grunwald on July 21, 1910

26 Funeral of President Hindenburg August 1934 (German Grunwald Monument)

27 Memorial complex of Grunwald today Grunwald celebrations, July 15, 2002 near Stebark

28 Outline 1. Celebrating the nation 2. Russia 3. Ukraine 4. Poland 5. National holidays today 6. Conclusion

29 Russia February 23 Protector of the Motherland February 23 Protector of the Motherland Day Day March 8 International Womens Day March 8 International Womens Day May 1 Spring and Labour Day May 1 Spring and Labour Day May 9 Victory Day (Over German Nazism in WW2) May 9 Victory Day (Over German Nazism in WW2) June 12 Independence Day (Russia Day) June 12 Independence Day (Russia Day) November 4 Day of National Unity November 4 Day of National Unity

30 A

31 Ukraine March 8 International Womens Day March 8 International Womens Day May 1 and 2 The Day of the International Solidarity of the Workers May 1 and 2 The Day of the International Solidarity of the Workers May 9 Victory Day May 9 Victory Day June 28 Constitution Day June 28 Constitution Day August 24 Independence Day August 24 Independence Day

32 2003

33 Poland May 1 May Day May 1 May Day May 3 Constitution Day May 3 Constitution Day November 11 Independence Day November 11 Independence Day

34 Constitution Day, Warsaw, 2005

35 Outline 1. Celebrating the nation 2. Russia 3. Ukraine 4. Poland 5. National holidays today 6. Conclusion

36 Conclusion – Functions of national celebrations Strengthening national unity Strengthening national unity Inclusion and exclusion Inclusion and exclusion Ritualized visualisation of the nation Ritualized visualisation of the nation Defining the nations past Defining the nations past Raising the spirit of the nation Raising the spirit of the nation Stabilising the existing political order or calling for a revision/revolution Stabilising the existing political order or calling for a revision/revolution


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