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The Russian Revolution Causes & Events. Background Oppressive rule of the Romanovs (1613-1917) caused much social unrest in Russia Feudalism had been.

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Presentation on theme: "The Russian Revolution Causes & Events. Background Oppressive rule of the Romanovs (1613-1917) caused much social unrest in Russia Feudalism had been."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Russian Revolution Causes & Events

2 Background Oppressive rule of the Romanovs ( ) caused much social unrest in Russia Feudalism had been in place until 1868 & resulted in miserable treatment of the peasants Revolutionaries & secret societies developed through Russia to challenge the Czar

3 Background Ethnic diversity contributed to instability of imperial Russia Poles rebelled twice in 19 th century Russia had largest Jewish population in Europe Only 45% of people in Russia spoke Russian

4 Background Moderate Czar, Alexander II, made some reforms –Emancipated the serfs in 1868 in part to better their lives in part to create cheap labor for industrialization Reforms were not enough to make the people happy –Czar was assassinated in 1881

5 Background Czar Alexander III followed his father to throne in 1881 Halted all reforms & wanted to strengthenautocracy, orthodoxy & nationality –Autocracy: rule of one person –Orthodoxy: believing in the traditional religious views (Eastern Orthodox Church) –Nationality: making everyone Russian

6 Background To enforce these new policies, Alexander III used: Censorship Secret police Torture Exile Pogroms

7 Background Pogroms: state sponsored, organized violence against the Jews in Russia

8 Nicholas II Followed same path against reform as his father Believed in tradition of autocracy Failed to see times were changing

9 Nicholas II Under Nicholas the government: was corrupt Unavailable to the people Still spending too much Not doing enough to modernize Russia

10 Russo-Japanese War Weakness of Russia exposed in Russo- Japanese War Japanese were better trained and led Russian supplies came across Russia on rail which was too slow to be effective Russian navy destroyed by Japanese fleet Embarrassing defeat caused popular uprising, the Revolution of 1905

11 Revolution of 1905 January 1905: 200,000 protestors outside Winter Place in St Petersburg Guards feared revolution & shot into crowd killing 1000 people The dress rehearsal for the revolution resulted in the creation of the Duma or parliament Nicholas dissolved Duma after 10 weeks

12 World War I At start of war had largest army, but generals were incompetent, army lacked supplies & soldiers were poorly trained/equipped Russian army suffered defeat after defeat to Germans Too many men in army & not enough to run trains, factories or farms

13 World War I People of Russia suffered from food & fuel shortages in winter Czars court just as luxurious as ever No help coming for the people No end in sight for the war Soldiers deserted in droves Revolutionaries gaining strength

14 March Revolution In March 1917, riots broke out over pricves, food and fuel shortages Food ran out in St. Petersburg in early March Soldiers sent out to quiet the rioters joined them Soviets were created (small groups of workers, peasants & soldiers) Soviets took control of factories and barracks

15 March Revolution Nicholas II abdicated & Alexander Kerensky formed a new Provisional Government Kerensky made decision to continue on in the war (possibly looking for help from the Allies afterward) Decision to continue in war enraged the people & cost Kerensky his support

16 Lenin & the Bolsheviks Sent back to Russia by the Germans Declared Peace, Land Bread would be his goals Wanted all power given to te Soviets

17 The November Revolution November 1917: Lenins forces attacked Winter Palace & arrested Kerensky, the Provisional Government & any & all rivals All private land was nationalized Peasants had to hand over all crops without compensation & many resisted Factories taken over by Bolsheviks & peasants forced into mandatory labor brigades

18 The November Revolution Secret police, the Cheka, was created to spy on people Bolsheviks sued for peace with Germany Signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 1918 Terms of Treaty with Germans enraged the people of Russia and led, in part, to civil war

19 The Russian Civil War Civil War lasted Fought between Reds (communists or Bolsheviks) & Whites (Mensheviks or non-communists) Western nations sent troops to help White Army Approximately 15 million died in the fighting or as a result of the famine & disease caused by civil war

20 Problems Face the Bolsheviks By 1921 Russian economy was in ruins one-sixth of prewar levels Factories not producing Transportation not moving Farmland devastated & livestock killed Famine widespread

21 Problems Face the Bolsheviks Lenin announced New Economic Policy in March 1921 to address economic problems Was a mix of communism & capitalism: Peasants could own land & sell crops for a profit Small businesses could operate on free market basis Large businesses controlled by state

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