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Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe Lecture 13 The Great War and the Russian Revolution Week 4, Spring Term.

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Presentation on theme: "Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe Lecture 13 The Great War and the Russian Revolution Week 4, Spring Term."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe Lecture 13 The Great War and the Russian Revolution Week 4, Spring Term

2 Outline 1. National concepts and war aims 2. The Great War in Eastern Europe 3. The two Russian revolutions 4. “Ostraum”: The treaty of Brest-Litovsk 5. Civil wars, state-building and revolutionary wars 6. Results

3 Putzger, Historischer Weltatlas, pp

4 Russian Concepts 1914 Tsar and supporter of autocracy Strengthening of the authority of the Tsar Territorial gains in West and South (Constantinople) Defeat of Germany and Austria Occupation of East Galicia and Bukowina – Liberation of Russian (East Slavic – Ruthenian) population To win the support of the Poles – Promise of autonomy of unified ethnic Polish territory under tsarist rule Society Constitutional reforms, participation of society Territorial gains in West and South (Constantinople) Defeat of Germany and Austria Occupation of East Galicia and Bukowina – Liberation of Russian (East Slavic – Ruthenian) population To win the support of the Poles – Promise of autonomy of unified ethnic Polish territory under tsarist rule

5 Roman Dmowski Józef Pilsudski

6 Polish Concepts 1914 Pilsudski Independence Together with Austria and Germany Federation of Poland with Ukraine, Lithuania etc. Rights of minorities Jagiellonian Poland – territory in the East Enemy No. 1: Russia Dmowski Autonomy of a unified Poland under rule of the Tsar Together with Russia Polish nation state Assimilationist “Piast Poland” – territory in the West Enemy No. 1: Germany

7 Ukrainian Concepts 1914 Russian Ukraine Defeat of Austria Autonomy of ethnic Ukrainian territory in a constitutional or democratic Russia Unification of Ukraine under Tsar East Galicia Defeat of Russia Autonomy (Ukrainian Crownland) in Austria, partition of Galicia and Lodomeria Unification of Ukraine under Austrian Emperor

8 The Bolshevik Concept Imperialist war for all participating states True socialists must not support the war effort of their country Revolutionaries should transform the imperialist war into civil wars World revolution beginning with the weakest imperalist state: Russia

9 Outline 1. National concepts and war aims 2. The Great War in Eastern Europe 3. The two Russian revolutions 4. “Ostraum”: The treaty of Brest-Litovsk 5. Civil wars, state-building and revolutionary wars 6. Results

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12 Outline 1. National concepts and war aims 2. The Great War in Eastern Europe 3. The two Russian revolutions 4. “Ostraum”: The treaty of Brest-Litovsk 5. Civil wars, state-building and revolutionary wars 6. Results

13 Revolutions in Russia Alexander Kerenski Vladimir I. Lenin

14 8 January, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points (Delivered in Joint Session of the Congress, January 8, 1918) XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant. What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression.

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16 Outline 1. National concepts and war aims 2. The Great War in Eastern Europe 3. The two Russian revolutions 4. “Ostraum”: The treaty of Brest-Litovsk 5. Civil wars, state-building and revolutionary wars 6. Results

17 Brest-Litovsk, February 1918

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19 Mykhailo Hrushevsky Pavlo Skoropadsky Symon Petliura

20 Outline 1. National concepts and war aims 2. The Great War in Eastern Europe 3. The two Russian revolutions 4. “Ostraum”: The treaty of Brest-Litovsk 5. Civil wars, state-building and revolutionary wars 6. Results

21 Territorial claims after the First World War (from Davies: God’s Playground...)

22 dtv-Atlas zur Welt- Geschichte. vol. 2, 1979.

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25 Polish-Ukrainian War 1918/19

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33 Outline 1. National concepts and war aims 2. The Great War in Eastern Europe 3. The two Russian revolutions 4. “Ostraum”: The treaty of Brest-Litovsk 5. Civil wars, state-building and revolutionary wars 6. Results

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35 Eastern Europe after the Great War Multinational states or federations with problematic legitimacy: Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia New nation states: Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia Profiteers of Versailles: nation states with nationalist ideologies and considerable national minorities: Poland, Romania Defeated countries with reduced territory, but high degree of ethnic homogeneity, where part of the nation lives outside the borders of the nation state: Hungary, Bulgaria – revisionist Loosers of the state building wars : Ukraine, White Russia – revisionist Revolutionary (Soviet) Russia – revisionist

36 Putzger, Historischer Weltatlas, pp


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