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Historical Background: In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Russian society was changing Peasants were starving
As Russia industrialized, a middle class was created They wanted to participate in politics
Nicholas II, the last czar of Russia, came to power during this period.
The Marxists: One of the opposition groups that was created Wanted the peasants and workers to overthrow the government
The Marxists split into two groups One was called the Bolsheviks, and was led by Vladimir Lenin
World War I: World War I made the Russian people question the government even more because they were so easily defeated by Germany
The war put a huge strain on the Russian economy
The February Revolution: A personal friend of the czar (Rasputin) was killed and strikes and riots broke out over food shortages
Nicholas was forced to abdicate his throne and his family was killed by the Bolsheviks
A temporary government was established by the parliament The Bolsheviks opposed this government
The October Revolution: By 1917,Russia had been seriously weakened by WWI – Lenin saw this as an opportunity for a Bolshevik take-over of the government
The Bolsheviks took control of the Russian government and immediately pulled Russia out of the war
A month after the October Revolution counterrevolutionaries organized into an army called the White Russians
The White Russians and the Red Army (the Bolshevik army) engaged in a civil war for the next three years
The United States, France, Britain, and Japan offered support to the White Russians
The Red Army (The Bolsheviks) eventually won the war and made Russia a communist nation
World War I Leader of the Russian Empire, Czar Nicholas II (Romanov) allied with France and Britain at the start of the war. Joining the war temporarily.
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