Presentation on theme: "Unprepared for a World War -The Russian Empire was far less industrialized than western Europe, the U.S., and Japan. -Because of Russia’s size and agrarian."— Presentation transcript:
Unprepared for a World War -The Russian Empire was far less industrialized than western Europe, the U.S., and Japan. -Because of Russia’s size and agrarian based economy, they lacked manufacturing and transportation infrastructure. -Russia lacked a modern army and competent military leaders.
Russia is Devastated By WWI Millions of soldiers were killed or injured as well as millions of civilian deaths due to food shortages. Czar Nicholas II was mismanaging the war and domestic issues in part due to the influence of a man named Rasputin. By 1917 even the monarchy was to weak to continue to rule and fight a war.
February(March) Revolution In early 1917 because of rising bread costs strikes and protests broke out largely led by women. Nicholas II ordered his troops to break up the strikes by shooting Russians if needed. This led to his troops abandoning him and joining the opposition. Following this the Duma (legislative body) met despite Nicholas II attempt to destroy it.
Making Connections The February Revolution in Russia resembled the French Revolution in many ways, list as many as you can. Based on what you know happened during the French Revolution what do you think will happen in Russia?
Provisional Government March 12 th the Duma establishes provisional government and asks Nicholas II to step down. After Nicholas II steps down Alexander Kerensky becomes leader of Provisional Gov. and decides to stay in war to save Russian pride. With the Russian people still dissatisfied the Soviets (councils of representatives for workers and soldiers) gained support for there more radical socialist interests.
The Bolshevik Revolution The Provisional Government failed which led to the second revolution of 1917 led by the Bolsheviks in October. The failure occurred because “The Provisional Government alternated between ineffective reforms and repressive measures” -John Reed The Bolsheviks were a Marxist political party led by V.I. Lenin dedicated to total communist revolution.
Lenin and The Bolsheviks Lenin had long wanted to implement the Marxist form of communism but had been hiding abroad because of his activities. After the first revolution he saw a chance and with the help of the German government he returned to Russia. Lenin led to Bolsheviks to growing power by gaining control of the many socialist Soviets.
Lenin’s return will fill a void left by the failing Kerensky
A Communist Revolution By October the Bolsheviks had control over many Soviets including the Petrograd (St. Petersburg) soviet led by Leon Trotsky (a key revolutionary). November 9 th the Winter Palace is stormed by the Bolsheviks. The Provisional government collapsed with little bloodshed and a congress of soviets was established led by Lenin (who held all real power)
Russians Exit WWI Lenin’s promise of “Peace! Land! Bread!” required peace first which came at a heavy cost. March 3 rd 1918 Lenin signs The Treaty of Brest- Litovsk which ended the war but gave Poland, the Ukraine, Finland, and Baltic provinces to Germany.
Impact Russia lost about one million square kilometers, and 50 million inhabitants. Following the Russians exit the Germans made temporary advances. (Until the U.S. enters the war) The communist ideas did spread to portions of European nations, and the years following the Bolshevik Revolution would see strengthening global communist support.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Continued attacks of American ships and plans to enlist Mexico and Japan to attack the U.S. led directly to the U.S. entry in the war. Many in the U.S. had supported the Allies throughout the war but the Zimmerman telegram bein released to the public led to congress declaring war on Germany almost immediately.