Presentation on theme: "Is Everything an Argument?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Is Everything an Argument? Hilstein-American LiteratureIs Everything an Argument?A Look at Argument, Persuasion, and Rhetoric
2 Argumentation-Persuasion Hilstein-American LiteratureArgumentation-PersuasionEveryone has experience arguing-“Do it.”“Why?”“Because I said so.”“You can’t possibly expect me to believe what you are saying.”“Look, I know what I’m talking about, and that’s that.”But-In writing or oration, it is using clear thinking and logic to convince audience of the soundness of a particular opinion, especially on controversial topics.
3 Hilstein-American Literature Differences between…Argument- purpose to document objectively to prove a pointPersuasion- purpose to shake up readers and motivate them to actThe two are usually combined because most people respond rationally and emotionally.
4 Hilstein-American Literature It’s not just wordsAn argument can be any text (whether written, spoken, or visual) that expresses a point of view.Pair Share: What are some types of arguments that you see in daily life that you wouldn’t think are actually arguments?
5 Hilstein-American Literature BUMPER STICKERSWhat are some of the arguments being shared?
6 Hilstein-American Literature ADVERTISEMTNSWhat is Taylor selling?
7 Hilstein-American Literature PROPAGANDAWhat is the baby urging you to do?
8 Hilstein-American Literature CARTOONSWhat does this cartoon claim?
12 Hilstein-American Literature Purpose of ArgumentInformAct (action)ConvinceMeditate and prayExploreThinkMake decisionsDoAll of those daily arguments have a purpose. What are the types of purposes?
13 Hilstein-American Literature Elements of Argument:ClaimsData/EvidenceWarrantsCounter ClaimsThe Appeals (logos, pathos, ethos),FallaciesClaim: The overall thesis the writer will argue for.Data: Evidence gathered to support the claim.Warrant (also referred to as a bridge): Explanation of why or how the data supports the claim, the underlying assumption that connects your data to your claim.Backing (also referred to as the foundation): Additional logic or reasoning that may be necessary to support the warrant.Counterclaim: A claim that negates or disagrees with the thesis/claim.Rebuttal: Evidence that negates or disagrees with the counterclaim.
14 Hilstein-American Literature What is a claim?An arguable statementIn effect, someone who offers an argument for a position is making a claim, providing reasons to support that claim, and implying that the premises make it reasonable to accept the conclusion.Other terms: argument, thesis
15 There are three types of claim Hilstein-American LiteratureThere are three types of claimClaims of fact assert that something is true or not true.Claims of value assert that something is good or bad, more or less desirable.Claims of policy assert that one course of action is superior to another.
16 Hilstein-American Literature Data/EvidenceInformation gathered to support the claim.Evidence can include data, experience, observations, reading, etc.
17 Warrant (also referred to as a bridge) Hilstein-American LiteratureWarrant (also referred to as a bridge)Explanation of why or how the data supports the claim, the underlying assumption that connects data/evidence to the claim.
18 Hilstein-American Literature What is a Counter ClaimThe part of an argument in which a speaker or writer counters opposing points of view.It can also be referred as a counter argument or refutation.The rebuttal is the evidence used to negate or disagree with the counter claim.Counterclaim: A claim that negates or disagrees with the thesis/claim.Rebuttal: Evidence that negates or disagrees with the counterclaim.
19 Hilstein-American Literature What is the claim?
20 Hilstein-American Literature What are the claims?
21 Hilstein-American Literature What is the claim?
22 Hilstein-American Literature What is the claim?
23 Hilstein-American Literature Aristotelian Appeals Logos, Ethos and PathosAristotelian Appeals
24 Aristotle’s Three Ways to Persuade Hilstein-American LiteratureAristotle’s Three Ways to PersuadeLogosEthosPathos
25 Hilstein-American Literature Who is Aristotle?Aristotle ( BCE) is the most notable product of the educational program devised by Plato. Aristotle wrote on an amazing range of subjects, from logic, philosophy, and ethics to physics, biology, psychology, politics, and rhetoric.
26 What is logos, ethos, and pathos? Hilstein-American LiteratureWhat is logos, ethos, and pathos?Logos = LogicEthos = Ethics, ImagePathos = Emotions (Passion)
27 Hilstein-American Literature Logos, Ethos, PathosUsing logos, ethos, and pathos will help you to master the art of persuasion.• Through language, you will be able to change the point of view of others!• Through language, you will be able to motivate others to take action!
28 Hilstein-American Literature LogosLogos is an argument based on facts, evidence and reason.Using logos means appealing to the readers’ sense of what is logical.
30 Hilstein-American Literature Logos ExampleUnemployment Rates in California for the last 10 years
31 Hilstein-American Literature EthosEthos is an argument based on character.Using ethos means the writer or speaker appeals to the audience’s sense of ethical behavior. The writer or speaker presents him or herself to the audience as credible, trustworthy, honest and ethical.“I am an ethical expert, so believe what I say.”
32 Hilstein-American Literature Ethos Example:Quote: “Changes in professional football are producing a faster, more pass-oriented game.”Repertoire: NFL Quarterback andChampionWhy is Peyton Manning credible?
37 What is this? Ethos, Pathos, Logos? Hilstein-American LiteratureWhat is this? Ethos, Pathos, Logos?
38 Hilstein-American Literature Logos, Ethos, PathosThink of Logos, Ethos, and Pathos as your Three Amigos
39 Hilstein-American Literature ReviewLogos = logicLogos is an argument based on facts, evidence and reason.Using logos means appealing to the readers’ sense of what is logical.
40 Hilstein-American Literature ReviewEthos = Ethics / ImageEthos is an argument based on character.The writer or speaker presents him or herself to the reader as credible, trustworthy, honest and ethical.
41 Hilstein-American Literature ReviewPathos = argument based on feelingsUsing pathos means appealing to readers’ emotions and feelings.
42 Hilstein-American Literature What is rhetoric?Rhetoric is the art of persuasion and study of effective speaking and writingThe goal of persuasion is to change others’ point of view or to move others to take action.Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing. And the art of persuasion. And many other things.In its long and vigorous history rhetoric has enjoyed many definitions, accommodated differing purposes, and varied widely in what it included. And yet, for most of its history it has maintained its fundamental character as a discipline for training students 1) to perceive how language is at work orally and in writing, and 2) to become proficient in applying the resources of language in their own speaking and writing. (See rhetorical pedagogy)Discerning how language is working in others' or one's own writing and speaking, one must (artificially) divide form and content, what is being said and how this is said (see Content/Form).
43 Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing. Hilstein-American LiteratureRhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing.Rhetoric studies the effectiveness of language comprehensively, including its emotional impact, as much as its propositional content.Rhetoric is how language and thought work togetherthinkingspeakingwriting
44 Rhetorically Speaking… Hilstein-American LiteratureRhetorically Speaking…You will evaluate rhetorical strategiesYou will argue using rhetorical strategies