A. Extensive vs. Intensive Extensive Property depends on the amount of matter present Intensive Property depends on the identity of substance, not the amount
A. Extensive vs. Intensive Examples: boiling point volume mass density conductivity intensive extensive intensive
B. Physical vs. Chemical Physical Property can be observed without changing the identity of the substance Click for movie Click for movie Chemical Property describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity
B. Physical vs. Chemical Examples: melting point flammable density magnetic tarnishes in air physical chemical physical chemical
B. Physical vs. Chemical Physical Change changes the form of a substance without changing its identity properties remain the same Chemical Change changes the identity of a substance products have different properties
B. Physical vs. Chemical Signs of a Chemical Change change in color or odor formation of a gas formation of a precipitate (solid) change in light or heat
B. Physical vs. Chemical Examples: rusting iron dissolving in water burning a log melting ice grinding spices chemical physical chemical physical
Chemical verses physical change Which one is a physical change? A. Sodium reacting B. Iodine changing with chlorine. from a solid to a gas
Matter II. States of Matter Kinetic Molecular Theory States of Matter Click for movie Click for movie
Physical Properties States of matter solid liquid gas
A. Kinetic Molecular Theory KMT Particles of matter are always in motion. The kinetic energy (speed) of these particles increases as temperature increases.
B. Four States of Matter Solids very low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around fixed shape fixed volume
B. Four States of Matter Liquids low KE - particles can move around but are still close together variable shape fixed volume
B. Four States of Matter Gases high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container variable shape variable volume Click for movie Click for movie
The States of Matter VAPORIZATION CONDENSATION MELTING FREEZING
Changes of State Melting - the transition from the solid substance into a liquid The melting Point Freezing or Fusion - liquid to solid The Freezing point When does water melt? When does water freeze?
Changes of State Boiling or Vaporization or Evaporation liquid to gas Condensation - gas to liquid Sublimation - solid to gas Deposition - gas to solid
B. Four States of Matter Plasma very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) gas-like, variable shape & volume stars, fluorescent light bulbs, CRTs
Matter III. Classification of Matter Matter Flowchart Pure Substances Mixtures
A. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous MixtureCompoundElement MIXTUREPURE SUBSTANCE yesno Can it be chemically decomposed? noyes Is the composition uniform? noyes ColloidsSuspensions
A. Matter Flowchart Examples: graphite salt & pepper sugar (sucrose) paint soda element hetero. mixture compound hetero. mixture solution
B. Pure Substances Element composed of identical atoms Ex: copper wire, aluminum foil
B. Pure Substances Compound composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio properties differ from those of individual elements Ex: table salt (NaCl)
B. Pure Substances Law of Definite Composition A given compound always contains the same, fixed ratio of elements. Law of Multiple Proportions Elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds.
B. Pure Substances For example… Two different compounds, each has a definite composition.
Heterogeneous Mixtures Heterogeneous mixtures occur when you can see the physical differences between the substances. Is a salt and water mixture a heterogeneous mixture? Is a mixture of sand and water a heterogeneous mixture? Rubbing Alcohol Oil Corn syrup
C. Mixtures Examples: milk muddy water fog salt & water Italian salad dressing colloid suspension colloid solution suspension
Physical Separation Techniques Mixtures are combinations of two or more substances that when mixed do not change. Therefore, physical properties can be used to separate them. What physical properties could be used? Think about how you could separate iron, salt and sand. Total Cereal
Physical Separations Filtering Separation by the physical property of solubility. One substance is soluble the other is not. Coffee filters Tea bags Spaghetti
Physical Separations Chromatography Separation by solubility, mass or bonding properties Separation of inks Separation of M&M dyes Separation of leaf pigments.
Physical Separations Distillation Separation by the physical properties of melting point or boiling point Purifying water
Physical Separations Are used to separate substances present in a mixture by using any physical property that is different between the two substances. What are the substances that make up a mixture? If the substances are not mixtures then they must be pure.