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Chapter 3 Matter I. Properties & Changes in Matter  Extensive vs. Intensive  Physical vs. Chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Matter I. Properties & Changes in Matter  Extensive vs. Intensive  Physical vs. Chemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Matter I. Properties & Changes in Matter  Extensive vs. Intensive  Physical vs. Chemical


3 A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Extensive Property  depends on the amount of matter present  Intensive Property  depends on the identity of substance, not the amount

4 A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Examples:  boiling point  volume  mass  density  conductivity intensive extensive intensive

5 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Property  can be observed without changing the identity of the substance  Click for movie Click for movie  Chemical Property  describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity

6 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  melting point  flammable  density  magnetic  tarnishes in air physical chemical physical chemical

7 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Change  changes the form of a substance without changing its identity  properties remain the same Chemical Change changes the identity of a substance products have different properties

8 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Signs of a Chemical Change  change in color or odor  formation of a gas  formation of a precipitate (solid)  change in light or heat

9 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  rusting iron  dissolving in water  burning a log  melting ice  grinding spices chemical physical chemical physical

10 Chemical verses physical change Which one is a physical change? A. Sodium reacting B. Iodine changing with chlorine. from a solid to a gas

11 Matter II. States of Matter  Kinetic Molecular Theory  States of Matter  Click for movie Click for movie

12 Physical Properties States of matter solid liquid gas

13 A. Kinetic Molecular Theory  KMT  Particles of matter are always in motion.  The kinetic energy (speed) of these particles increases as temperature increases.

14 B. Four States of Matter  Solids  very low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around  fixed shape  fixed volume

15 B. Four States of Matter  Liquids  low KE - particles can move around but are still close together  variable shape  fixed volume

16 B. Four States of Matter  Gases  high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container  variable shape  variable volume  Click for movie Click for movie


18 Changes of State  Melting - the transition from the solid substance into a liquid  The melting Point  Freezing or Fusion - liquid to solid  The Freezing point  When does water melt?  When does water freeze?

19 Changes of State  Boiling or Vaporization or Evaporation  liquid to gas  Condensation - gas to liquid  Sublimation - solid to gas  Deposition - gas to solid

20 B. Four States of Matter  Plasma  very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-)  gas-like, variable shape & volume  stars, fluorescent light bulbs, CRTs

21 Matter III. Classification of Matter  Matter Flowchart  Pure Substances  Mixtures

22 A. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous MixtureCompoundElement MIXTUREPURE SUBSTANCE yesno Can it be chemically decomposed? noyes Is the composition uniform? noyes ColloidsSuspensions

23 A. Matter Flowchart  Examples:  graphite  salt & pepper  sugar (sucrose)  paint  soda element hetero. mixture compound hetero. mixture solution

24 B. Pure Substances  Element  composed of identical atoms  Ex: copper wire, aluminum foil

25 B. Pure Substances  Compound  composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio  properties differ from those of individual elements  Ex: table salt (NaCl)

26 B. Pure Substances  Law of Definite Composition  A given compound always contains the same, fixed ratio of elements.  Law of Multiple Proportions  Elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds.

27 B. Pure Substances  For example… Two different compounds, each has a definite composition.

28 Pure Substances

29 C. Mixtures  Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances. HeterogeneousHomogeneous

30 C. Mixtures  Solution  homogeneous  very small particles  no Tyndall effect Tyndall Effect  particles don’t settle  EX: rubbing alcohol

31 C. Mixtures  Colloid  heterogeneous  medium-sized particles  Tyndall Effect  particles don’t settle  EX: milk

32 C. Mixtures  Suspension  heterogeneous  larger particles  Tyndall Effect  particles settle  EX:fresh-squeezed lemonade with pulp

33 Heterogeneous Mixtures  Heterogeneous mixtures occur when you can see the physical differences between the substances.  Is a salt and water mixture a heterogeneous mixture?  Is a mixture of sand and water a heterogeneous mixture? Rubbing Alcohol Oil Corn syrup

34 C. Mixtures  Examples:  milk  muddy water  fog  salt & water  Italian salad dressing colloid suspension colloid solution suspension

35 Compounds and Mixtures

36 Physical Separation Techniques  Mixtures are combinations of two or more substances that when mixed do not change.  Therefore, physical properties can be used to separate them.  What physical properties could be used?  Think about how you could separate iron, salt and sand.  Total Cereal

37 Physical Separations  Filtering  Separation by the physical property of solubility. One substance is soluble the other is not.  Coffee filters  Tea bags  Spaghetti

38 Physical Separations  Chromatography  Separation by solubility, mass or bonding properties  Separation of inks  Separation of M&M dyes  Separation of leaf pigments.

39 Physical Separations  Distillation  Separation by the physical properties of melting point or boiling point  Purifying water

40 Physical Separations  Are used to separate substances present in a mixture by using any physical property that is different between the two substances.  What are the substances that make up a mixture?  If the substances are not mixtures then they must be pure.

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