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Matter: Properties & Change

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Presentation on theme: "Matter: Properties & Change"— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter: Properties & Change
Chapter 3

2 Matter Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space
Everything around us Chemistry – the study of matter and the changes it undergoes

3 Four States of Matter Solids particles vibrate but can’t move around
fixed shape fixed volume incompressible

4 Four States of Matter Liquids
particles can move around but are still close together variable shape (shape of container) fixed volume virtually incompressible

5 Four States of Matter Gases
particles can separate and move throughout container variable shape variable volume easily compressed vapor = gaseous state of a substance that is a liquid or solid at room temperature

6 Four States of Matter Plasma
particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) gas-like, variable shape & volume stars, fluorescent light bulbs

7 Physical Properties Physical Property
can be observed without changing the identity of the substance

8 Physical Properties Physical properties can be described as one of 2 types: Extensive Property depends on the amount of matter present (example: length) Intensive Property depends on the identity of substance, not the amount (example: density)

9 Chemical Properties Chemical Property
describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity

10 Physical vs. Chemical Properties
Examples: melting point flammable density magnetic tarnishes in air physical chemical

11 Physical Changes Physical Change
changes the form of a substance without changing its identity properties remain the same Examples: cutting a sheet of paper, all phase changes

12 Phase Changes Evaporation = Condensation = Melting = Freezing =
Sublimation = Deposition = Liquid  Gas Gas  Liquid Solid  Liquid Liquid  Solid Solid  Gas Gas  Solid

13 Chemical Changes Process that involves one or more substances changing into a new substance Commonly referred to as a chemical reaction New substances have different compositions and properties than the original substances

14 Chemical Changes Signs of a Chemical Change change in color or odor
formation of a gas formation of a precipitate (solid) change in temperature

15 Physical vs. Chemical Changes
Examples: rusting iron dissolving in water burning a log melting ice grinding spices chemical physical

16 Law of Conservation of Mass
Although chemical changes occur, mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction Mass of reactants equals mass of products massreactants = massproducts A + B C

17 Conservation of Mass GIVEN: WORK: 10.00 g = 9.86 g + moxygen
In an experiment, g of red mercury (II) oxide powder is placed in an open flask and heated until it is converted to liquid mercury and oxygen gas. The liquid mercury has a mass of 9.26 g. What is the mass of the oxygen formed in the reaction? GIVEN: Mercury (II) oxide  mercury + oxygen mmercury(II) oxide = g mmercury = 9.86 g moxygen = ? WORK: 10.00 g = 9.86 g + moxygen moxygen = (10.00 g – 9.86 g) moxygen = 0.74 g Mercury (II) oxide  mercury + oxygen Mmercury(II) oxide = g Mmercury = 9.26 Moxygen = ? massreactants = massproducts

18 Can it be physically separated?
Matter Flowchart MATTER yes no Can it be physically separated? MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE Is the composition uniform? no yes Can it be chemically decomposed? no yes Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element

19 Matter Flowchart Examples: graphite element pepper
sugar (sucrose) paint soda element heterogeneous mixture compound solution

20 Pure Substances Element composed of identical atoms
Example: copper wire, aluminum foil

21 Pure Substances Compound
composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio properties differ from those of individual elements Example: table salt (NaCl)

22 Mixtures Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances.
Heterogeneous Homogeneous

23 Mixtures Solution homogeneous very small particles
particles don’t settle Example: rubbing alcohol

24 Mixtures Heterogeneous medium-sized to large-sized particles
particles may or may not settle Example: milk, fresh-squeezed lemonade

25 Mixtures Examples: Answers: tea muddy water fog NaCl & H2O
Italian salad dressing Answers: Solution Heterogeneous

26 Separating Mixtures Substances in a mixture are physically combined, so processes bases on differences in physical properties are used to separate components Numerous techniques have been developed to separate mixtures to study components Filtration Distillation Sublimation Crystallization Chromatography

27 Filtration Used to separate heterogeneous mixtures composed of solids and liquids Uses a porous barrier to separate the solid from the liquid Liquid passes through leaving the solid in the filter paper

28 Distillation Used to separate homogeneous mixtures
Based on differences in boiling points of substances involved

29 Sublimation Process during which a solid changes to a vapor without melting Can be used to separate two solids present in a mixture when one of the solids sublimates but the other does not

30 Crystallization Separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles from a solution containing the dissolved substance As one substance evaporates, the dissolved substance comes out of solution and collects as crystals Produces highly pure solids Rocky candy is an example of this

31 Chromatography Separates components of a mixture based on ability of each component to be drawn across the surface of another material Mixture is usually liquid and is usually drawn across chromatography paper Separation occurs because various components travel at different rates Components with strongest attraction for paper travel the slowest; components with strongest attraction for the liquid travel the fastest

32 Separation of a Compound The Electrolysis of Water
Compounds must be separated by chemical means. With the application of electricity, water can be separated into its elements Reactant  Products Water  Hydrogen + Oxygen 2 H2O  H O2

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