# Ch. 1 – Matter and Its Properties. Scientific Method  Steps  Ask a __________________________  Observe and collect data  Formulate a hypothesis (a.

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Ch. 1 – Matter and Its Properties

Scientific Method  Steps  Ask a __________________________  Observe and collect data  Formulate a hypothesis (a testable if-then statement). The hypothesis serves as a basis for making predictions and for carrying out further experiments.  Test your ______________________ – Requires experimentation that provides data to support or refute your hypothesis.

Terms to Know  Law vs. theory  Scientific (natural) _____________: a general statement based on the observed behavior of matter to which no exceptions are known.  __________________: a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena.   Quantitative vs. qualitative data  Quantitative: numerical (__________________________________)  Qualitative: descriptive (___________________________________)

Properties & Changes in Matter Extensive vs. Intensive Physical vs. Chemical

A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Extensive Property  depends on the amount of matter present  Intensive Property  depends on the identity of substance, not the amount

A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Examples:  boiling point  volume  mass  density  conductivity intensive extensive intensive

B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Property  can be observed without changing the identity of the substance  Chemical Property  describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity

B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  melting point  flammable  density  magnetic  tarnishes in air physical chemical physical chemical

B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Change  changes the form of a substance without changing its identity  properties remain the same

B. Physical vs. Chemical  Chemical Change  changes the identity of a substance  products have different properties

B. Physical vs. Chemical  Signs of a Chemical Change  change in color or odor  formation of a gas  formation of a precipitate (solid)  change in light or heat

B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  rusting iron  dissolving in water  burning a log  melting ice  grinding spices chemical physical chemical physical

Ch. 1 - Matter Classification of Matter (p.15-17, 397-398)  Matter Flowchart  Pure Substances  Mixtures

A. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous MixtureCompoundElement MIXTUREPURE SUBSTANCE yes no Can it be chemically decomposed? noyes Is the composition uniform? noyes ColloidsSuspensions

A. Matter Flowchart  Examples:  graphite  pepper  sugar (sucrose)  paint  soda element hetero. mixture compound hetero. mixture solution

B. Pure Substances  Element  composed of identical atoms  EX: copper wire, aluminum foil

B. Pure Substances  Compound  composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio  properties differ from those of individual elements  EX: table salt (NaCl)

B. Pure Substances  Law of Definite Composition  A given compound always contains the same, fixed ratio of elements.  Law of Multiple Proportions  Elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds.

B. Pure Substances  For example… Two different compounds, each has a definite composition.

C. Mixtures  Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances. HeterogeneousHomogeneous

C. Mixtures  Solution  homogeneous  very small particles  no Tyndall effect Tyndall Effect  particles don’t settle  EX: rubbing alcohol

C. Mixtures  Colloid  heterogeneous  medium-sized particles  Tyndall effect  particles don’t settle  EX: milk

C. Mixtures  Suspension  heterogeneous  large particles  Tyndall effect  particles settle  EX:fresh-squeezed lemonade

C. Mixtures  Examples:  mayonnaise  muddy water  fog  saltwater  Italian salad dressing colloid suspension colloid solution suspension

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