Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Matter and Change I. Chemistry As a Physical Science.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Matter and Change I. Chemistry As a Physical Science."— Presentation transcript:


2 Matter and Change I. Chemistry As a Physical Science

3 Chemistry the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes Chemical any substance that has a definite composition or is used or produced in a chemical process

4 6 Branches of Chemistry organic chemistry- the study of most carbon-containing chemicals inorganic chemistry- the study of nonorganic substances

5 6 Branches of Chemistry biochemistry- the study of substances and processes occurring in living things analytical chemistry- the identification of the components and composition of materials

6 6 Branches of Chemistry physical chemistry- the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy

7 6 Branches of Chemistry Theoretical chemistry- the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict new compounds

8 Chemistry vs. Technology Basic research- the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake Applied research- research that is directed toward a practical goal or application

9 Chemistry vs. Technology Basic research can lead directly to an application, but an application cant exist before research is done to explain how it works. need a problem first

10 Chemistry vs. Technology Chemistry differs from technology… i.e. Aspirin Determining the structure of aspirin is chemistry Using aspirin to relieve pain and reduce fever is technology

11 Ch. 1 – Matter and Change II. Matter and Its Properties

12 Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous MixtureCompoundElement MIXTUREPURE SUBSTANCE yesno Can it be chemically decomposed? noyes Is the composition uniform? noyes ColloidsSuspensions

13 Pure Substances Every sample has exactly the same characteristic properties Every sample has exactly the same composition

14 Pure Substances Element composed of identical atoms EX: copper wire, aluminum foil

15 Pure Substances Compound composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio properties differ from those of individual elements EX: table salt (NaCl)

16 Pure Substances For example… Two different compounds, each has a definite composition.

17 Matter Flowchart Examples: graphite pepper sugar (sucrose) paint soda element hetero. mixture compound hetero. mixture solution

18 Mixtures Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances. HeterogeneousHomogeneous

19 Mixtures Solution homogeneous very small particles particles dont settle EX: rubbing alcohol

20 Mixtures Suspension heterogeneous large particles particles settle EX:fresh-squeezed lemonade

21 Mixtures Examples: mayonnaise muddy water fog saltwater Italian salad dressing colloid suspension colloid solution suspension

22 C. Johannesson Extensive vs. Intensive Extensive Property depends on the amount of matter present Intensive Property depends on the identity of substance, not the amount

23 C. Johannesson Extensive vs. Intensive Examples: boiling point volume mass density conductivity intensive extensive intensive

24 C. Johannesson Physical vs. Chemical Physical Property can be observed without changing the identity of the substance Chemical Property describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity

25 C. Johannesson Physical vs. Chemical Examples: melting point flammable density magnetic tarnishes in air physical chemical physical chemical

26 C. Johannesson Physical vs. Chemical Physical Change changes the form of a substance without changing its identity properties remain the same Chemical Change changes the identity of a substance products have different properties

27 C. Johannesson Physical vs. Chemical Signs of a Chemical Change change in color or odor formation of a gas formation of a precipitate (solid) change in light or heat

28 C. Johannesson Physical vs. Chemical Examples: rusting iron dissolving in water burning a log melting ice grinding spices chemical physical chemical physical

29 C. Johannesson Four States of Matter Solids particles vibrate but cant move around fixed shape fixed volume

30 C. Johannesson Four States of Matter Liquids particles can move around but are still close together variable shape fixed volume

31 C. Johannesson Four States of Matter Gases particles can separate and move throughout container variable shape variable volume

32 C. Johannesson Four States of Matter Plasma particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) gas-like, variable shape & volume stars, fluorescent light bulbs, CRTs

33 Ch. 1 – Matter and Change III. Elements

34 33 Modern Periodic Table Period- horizontzal row

35 34 Group or Family - Vertical column Modern Periodic Table

36 Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids

37 Metals solids at room temperature, have a grayish color and shiny surface and conduct electricity largest region excellent conductor of heat lustrous ductile malleable

38 Nonmetals second largest region on table vary in properties a bit poor conductor gases or brittle solids at room temp.

39 Metalloids an element having properties of metals as well as nonmetals some have conductive properties some have luster some brittle solid at room temp. semiconductors

Download ppt "Matter and Change I. Chemistry As a Physical Science."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google