Presentation on theme: " Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space Mass – the amount of matter the object contains Everything is made up of matter Substance contain."— Presentation transcript:
Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space Mass – the amount of matter the object contains Everything is made up of matter Substance contain only one type of matter; it is uniform and definite in composition. Example: table sugar vs. lemonade
MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous MixtureCompoundElement MIXTUREPURE SUBSTANCE yesno Can it be chemically decomposed? noyes Is the composition uniform? noyes ColloidsSuspensions
11 A physical blend of two or more substances. Types of Mixtures: 1. Homogeneous ( Solution) 2. Heterogeneous
12 One that has a completely uniform composition → components are evenly distributed throughout the sample ex. Salt solution → it has a single phase
13 One that is not uniform in composition → has two or more phases Ex. Oil and water, salad, milk
14 Filtration: process of removing suspended solids from water by passing it through a permeable fabric (filter paper
15 Distillation: a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed again to a liquid
16 Magnetism: used to separate metals from non-metals. Ex. A mixture of iron filings and sulfur. - The iron filings will be attracted to the magnet.
17 Chromatography: technique used in separating mixtures that are or can be colored (pigments).
18 Solubility: property used to distinguish one substance from another. This is a very useful technique. Evaporation: a useful method of separation a solid mixed into a liquid. The liquid if boiled will turn into its gaseous phase.
Solution › homogeneous › very small particles › No Tyndall effect Tyndall Effect particles don’t settle EX: rubbing alcohol
Solid – definite shape & definite volume; particles are packed closely together Liquid – definite volume, but takes the shape of the container; particles close, but able to move around. Liquids flow, almost incompressible and expand when heated.
Gas – indefinite shape & volume; particles are spread far apart. Gases expand to completely fill the container
26 PropertySolidLiquidGas ShapeDefiniteIndefinite VolumeDefinite Indefinite Expansion on heating Very slight ModerateGreat CompressibilityNilAlmost nilLarge Structural arrangement Closely packed Moderate - flows Far apart (move freely)
Physical Property – a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substances composition - color solubility, odor, hardness, density, melting point, boiling point, physical state - physical properties are used to identify unknown substances
A change that does not alter the chemical composition - Cutting, grinding, bending, temperature change
29 Freezing: liquid → solid Melting: solid → liquid Evaporation: liquid → gas Condensation: gas → liquid Sublimation: solid → gas
Ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction and to form new substances. Example: Rusting is a chemical property of iron.
odor, production of a gas or solid from a liquid Something NEW is created!!
32 Extensive properties: physical properties that depend on the amount of substance present ex. mass, length Intensive properties: physical properties that are not dependent on the amount of substance present ex. Density, melting point
34 Density depends ONLY on the composition of a substance and NOT the size of the sample A substance floats because its less dense than its counterparts A substance sinks because its more dense than its counterparts Pg 69 Table 3.7 Densities of Common Metals
35 The ratio of the mass of an object to its volume. Density = Mass Volume Units of Density Solids (g/cm 3 ) liquids (g/mL)
Chemical Symbol – one or two letter’s that represent an element - First letter is always capitalized; the second is always lower case Chemical Formula – shows the # and type of atoms present
Chemical Reactions – one or more substances change into new substances. 1. Reactants – the starting substances (left side) 2. Products – the substances formed (right side) Example: Iron + Sulfur → Iron Sulfide
Metals tend to lose electrons and become positive. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons and become negative. An ionic compound is formed when a metal combines with a nonmetal. The total charge on any compound is zero.
Ionic bond: held together by opposing electrical charges Covalent bond: compound is held together by the sharing of the electrons.
In any physical or chemical reaction, mass is neither created nor destroyed; it is conserved. The mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants.