Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Matter & Change Chapter 2.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Matter & Change Chapter 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter & Change Chapter 2

2 A. Describing Matter Understanding matter begins with observation
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space Chemistry – the study of matter and the changes it undergoes

3 B. Four States of Matter Solids
particles vibrate but can’t move around fixed shape fixed volume Virtually incompressible

4 B. Four States of Matter Liquids
particles can move around but are still close together variable shape fixed volume Virtually incompressible

5 B. Four States of Matter Gases
particles can separate and move throughout container variable shape variable volume Easily compressed Vapor = gaseous state of a substance that is a liquid or solid at room temperature

6 B. Four States of Matter Plasma
particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) gas-like, variable shape & volume stars, fluorescent light bulbs, TV tubes

7 II. Properties & Changes in Matter
Extensive vs. Intensive Physical vs. Chemical

8 A. Physical Properties Physical Property
can be observed without changing the identity of the substance

9 B. Physical Properties Physical properties can be described as one of 2 types: Extensive Property depends on the amount of matter present (example: length) Intensive Property depends on the identity of substance, not the amount (example: scent)

10 C. Extensive vs. Intensive
Examples: boiling point volume mass density conductivity intensive extensive

11 D. Physical Changes Physical Change
changes the form of a substance without changing its identity properties remain the same Examples: cutting a sheet of paper, breaking a crystal, all phase changes

12 D. Phase Changes – Physical
Evaporation = Condensation = Melting = Freezing = Sublimation = Liquid -> Gas Gas -> Liquid Solid -> Liquid Liquid -> Solid Solid -> Gas

13 E. Chemical Properties Chemical Property
describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity

14 F. Physical vs. Chemical Properties
Examples: melting point flammable density magnetic tarnishes in air physical chemical

15 G. Chemical Changes Process that involves one or more substances changing into a new substance Commonly referred to as a chemical reaction New substances have different compositions and properties from original substances

16 G. Chemical Changes Signs of a Chemical Change change in color or odor
formation of a gas formation of a precipitate (solid) change in light or heat

17 H. Physical vs. Chemical Changes
Examples: rusting iron dissolving in water burning a log melting ice grinding spices chemical physical

18 What Type of Change?

19 What Type of Change?

20 I. Law of Conservation of Mass
Although chemical changes occur, mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction Mass of reactants equals mass of products massreactants = massproducts A + B  C

21 I. Conservation of Mass GIVEN: WORK: 10.00 g = 9.86 g + moxygen
In an experiment, g of red mercury (II) oxide powder is placed in an open flask and heated until it is converted to liquid mercury and oxygen gas. The liquid mercury has a mass of 9.26 g. What is the mass of the oxygen formed in the reaction? GIVEN: Mercury (II) oxide  mercury + oxygen Mmercury(II) oxide = g Mmercury = 9.86 g Moxygen = ? WORK: 10.00 g = 9.86 g + moxygen Moxygen = (10.00 g – 9.86 g) Moxygen = 0.74 g Mercury (II) oxide  mercury + oxygen Mmercury(II) oxide = g Mmercury = 9.26 Moxygen = ? massreactants = massproducts

22 III. Classification of Matter (pp. 80-87)
Matter Flowchart Pure Substances Mixtures

23 Can it be physically separated?
A. Matter Flowchart MATTER yes no Can it be physically separated? MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE Is the composition uniform? no yes Can it be chemically decomposed? no yes Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element

24 A. Matter Flowchart Examples: graphite pepper sugar (sucrose) paint
soda element hetero. mixture compound solution

25 B. Pure Substances Element composed of identical atoms
EX: copper wire, aluminum foil

26 B. Pure Substances Compound
composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio properties differ from those of individual elements EX: table salt (NaCl)

27 C. Mixtures Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances.
Heterogeneous Homogeneous

28 C. Mixtures Solution homogeneous very small particles
particles don’t settle EX: rubbing alcohol

29 C. Mixtures Heterogeneous medium-sized to large-sized particles
particles may or may not settle EX: milk, fresh-squeezed lemonade

30 C. Mixtures Examples: Answers: tea muddy water fog saltwater
Italian salad dressing Answers: Solution Heterogeneous

31 III. Density Fun Formula Simple Calculations Dimensional Analysis

32 D M V D = M V A. Derived Units Combination of base units
Volume – length  length  length 1 cm3 = 1 mL dm3 = 1 L Density – mass per unit volume (g/cm3) Broken Heart D M V D = M V

33 B. Density Calculations
An object has a volume of 825 cm3 and a density of 13.6 g/cm3. Find its mass. GIVEN: V = 825 cm3 D = 13.6 g/cm3 M = ? WORK: M = DV M = (13.6 g/cm3)(825cm3) M = 11,220 g M = 11,200 g D M V

34 B. Density Calculations
A liquid has a density of 0.87 g/mL. What volume is occupied by 25 g of the liquid? GIVEN: D = 0.87 g/mL V = ? M = 25 g WORK: V = M D D M V V = g 0.87 g/mL V = 28.7 mL = 29 mL

35 B. Density Calculations
You have a sample with a mass of 620 g and a volume of 753 cm3. Find its density. GIVEN: M = 620 g V = 753 cm3 D = ? WORK: D = M V D M V D = g 753 cm3 D = 0.82 g/cm3

36 C. Density Calculations with DA
Used when units do not agree Conversions must be made before using formula D = M V D = g cm3

37 C. Density Calculations with DA
You have 3.10 pounds of gold. Find its volume in cm3 if the density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3. lb cm3 3.10 lb 1 kg 2.2 lb 1000 g 1 kg 1 cm3 19.3 g = 73.0 cm3

38 C. Density Calculations with DA
You have L of water. Find its mass in ounces if the density of water is 1.00 g/cm3. L oz 0.500 L 1000 mL 1L 1 cm3 1 mL 1.00g 1 cm3 1 kg 1000 g 2.2 lbs 1kg 16 oz 1lb = 17.6 oz

Download ppt "Matter & Change Chapter 2."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google