Presentation on theme: "Classification of Matter"— Presentation transcript:
1 Classification of Matter I. Composition of MatterMatter FlowchartPure SubstancesMixtures
2 Can it be separated by physical means? A. Matter FlowchartMATTERyesnoCan it be separated by physical means?MIXTUREPURE SUBSTANCEIs the composition uniform?noyesCan it be decomposed by chemical means?noyesHomogeneous Mixture(solution)Heterogeneous MixtureCompoundElement
3 B. Pure Substances Element matter composed of identical atoms EX: copper
5 B. Pure Substances Compound/ Molecule matter composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratioproperties differ from those of individual elementschemically combinedEX: salt (NaCl) or water (H2O)
6 Chemical FormulasShows how many atoms of each element are in the substance.Example: C16H10N2O2 is a blue dye.The number of atoms of each element is written after the element’s symbol as a subscript.If only one atom is present, no subscript is needed.
7 Chemical Formulas You try. C12H22O11 How many atoms of each element are in this formula?C is for carbon.H is for hydrogen.O is for oxygen.
8 C. Mixtures Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances. Homogeneous Mixture (Solution)even distribution of componentsvery small particlesparticles never settleEX: saline solution
9 C. Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixture uneven distribution of components Can physically separateColloids and SuspensionsEX: granite
10 C. Mixtures Colloid medium-sized particles Tyndall effect - particles scatter light (looks cloudy)particles never settleEX: milk
11 C. Mixtures Suspension large particles particles scatter light particles will settle (needs to be shaken)EX: fresh-squeezed lemonade
12 Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy Mass cannot be created nor destroyedEnergy cannot be created nor destroyed; it can be transformed or transferred to other forms of energy.
13 MATTER Solids, Liquids, & Gases I. States of Matter Kinetic Molecular TheoryFour States of MatterThermal Expansion
14 A. Kinetic Molecular Theory KMTTiny, constantly moving particles make up all matter.The kinetic energy (motion) of these particles increases as temperature increases.
15 B. Four States of Matter Solids low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move arounddefinite shape & volumecrystalline - repeating geometric patternamorphous - no pattern (e.g. glass, wax)
16 B. Four States of Matter Liquids higher KE - particles can move around but are still close togetherindefinite shapedefinite volume
17 B. Four States of Matter Gases high KE - particles can separate and move throughout containerindefinite shape & volume
18 B. Four States of Matter Plasma very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-)gas-like, indefinite shape & volumestars, fluorescent light bulbs, TV tubes
19 C. Thermal ExpansionMost matter expands when heated & contracts when cooled. Temp causes KE. Particles collide with more force & spread out.EX: thermostats (bimetallic strip)
20 II. Changes in State Phase Changes Heating Curves MATTERSolids, Liquids, & GasesII. Changes in StatePhase ChangesHeating Curves
21 melting point = freezing point A. Phase ChangesMeltingsolid to liquidFreezingliquid to solidmelting point = freezing point
22 A. Phase Changes Vaporization (boiling) liquid to gas at the boiling pointEvaporationliquid to gas below the boiling pointCondensationgas to liquid
23 A. Phase Changes Sublimation solid to gas EX: dry ice, freeze drying, iodine