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Classification of Matter

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Presentation on theme: "Classification of Matter"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification of Matter
I. Composition of Matter Matter Flowchart Pure Substances Mixtures

2 Can it be separated by physical means?
A. Matter Flowchart MATTER yes no Can it be separated by physical means? MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE Is the composition uniform? no yes Can it be decomposed by chemical means? no yes Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element

3 B. Pure Substances Element matter composed of identical atoms
EX: copper

4 Periodic Table of Elements

5 B. Pure Substances Compound/ Molecule
matter composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio properties differ from those of individual elements chemically combined EX: salt (NaCl) or water (H2O)

6 Chemical Formulas Shows how many atoms of each element are in the substance. Example: C16H10N2O2 is a blue dye. The number of atoms of each element is written after the element’s symbol as a subscript. If only one atom is present, no subscript is needed.

7 Chemical Formulas You try. C12H22O11
How many atoms of each element are in this formula? C is for carbon. H is for hydrogen. O is for oxygen.

8 C. Mixtures Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances.
Homogeneous Mixture (Solution) even distribution of components very small particles particles never settle EX: saline solution

9 C. Mixtures Heterogeneous Mixture uneven distribution of components
Can physically separate Colloids and Suspensions EX: granite

10 C. Mixtures Colloid medium-sized particles
Tyndall effect - particles scatter light (looks cloudy) particles never settle EX: milk

11 C. Mixtures Suspension large particles particles scatter light
particles will settle (needs to be shaken) EX: fresh-squeezed lemonade

12 Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy
Mass cannot be created nor destroyed Energy cannot be created nor destroyed; it can be transformed or transferred to other forms of energy.

13 MATTER Solids, Liquids, & Gases I. States of Matter
Kinetic Molecular Theory Four States of Matter Thermal Expansion

14 A. Kinetic Molecular Theory
KMT Tiny, constantly moving particles make up all matter. The kinetic energy (motion) of these particles increases as temperature increases.

15 B. Four States of Matter Solids
low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around definite shape & volume crystalline - repeating geometric pattern amorphous - no pattern (e.g. glass, wax)

16 B. Four States of Matter Liquids
higher KE - particles can move around but are still close together indefinite shape definite volume

17 B. Four States of Matter Gases
high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container indefinite shape & volume

18 B. Four States of Matter Plasma
very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) gas-like, indefinite shape & volume stars, fluorescent light bulbs, TV tubes

19 C. Thermal Expansion Most matter expands when heated & contracts when cooled.  Temp causes  KE. Particles collide with more force & spread out. EX: thermostats (bimetallic strip)

20 II. Changes in State Phase Changes Heating Curves
MATTER Solids, Liquids, & Gases II. Changes in State Phase Changes Heating Curves

21 melting point = freezing point
A. Phase Changes Melting solid to liquid Freezing liquid to solid melting point = freezing point

22 A. Phase Changes Vaporization (boiling)
liquid to gas at the boiling point Evaporation liquid to gas below the boiling point Condensation gas to liquid

23 A. Phase Changes Sublimation solid to gas
EX: dry ice, freeze drying, iodine

24 A. Phase Changes

25 B. Heating Curves Kinetic Energy motion of particles
related to temperature Potential Energy space between particles related to phase changes

26 B. Heating Curves Gas - KE  Boiling - PE  Liquid - KE 
Melting - PE  Solid - KE 

27 B. Heating Curves Heat of Fusion
energy required to change from solid to liquid some attractive forces are broken

28 B. Heating Curves HEATING CURVE Heat of Vaporization
energy required to change from liquid to gas all attractive forces are broken EX: steam burns, sweating, and… the drinking bird HEATING CURVE

29 Classification of Matter
II. Describing Matter Physical Property Physical Change Chemical Change Chemical Property

30 A. Physical Property A characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing its identity. can be used to separate mixtures EX: magnetism, density

31 B. Physical Change A change in the form of a substance without changing its identity. properties remain the same reversible can be used to separate mixtures EX: dissolving, grinding

32 C. Chemical Change A change in the identity of a substance.
properties change irreversible Signs: color change, formation of a gas/solid, release of light/heat EX: burning, rusting

33 D. Chemical Property A characteristic that indicates whether a substance can undergo a specific chemical change. EX: flammability, reactivity

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