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Ch. 1 - Matter I. States of Matter  Kinetic Energy  States of Matter.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 1 - Matter I. States of Matter  Kinetic Energy  States of Matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 1 - Matter I. States of Matter  Kinetic Energy  States of Matter

2 A. Kinetic Energy  Particles of matter are always in motion.  The kinetic energy (speed) of these particles increases as temperature increases.

3 B. Four States of Matter  Solids  very low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around  fixed shape  fixed volume

4 B. Four States of Matter  Liquids  low KE - particles can move around but are still close together  Take the shape of the container  fixed volume

5 B. Four States of Matter  Gases  high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container  variable shape  variable volume

6 B. Four States of Matter  Plasma  very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-)  gas-like, variable shape & volume  stars

7 Categorizing Matter  You have been given six different substances. For each substance, the name, density, and additional properties have been provided. Based on these properties, arrange the six compounds into categories.  There must be at least two substances in each category, and  all six substances must be assigned to a category.  On your own sheet of paper, list your categories and clearly explain the defining criteria for each one. In other words, explain why you decided to group the substances the way you did.

8 Ch. 1 - Matter II. Matter Flowchart  Pure Substances  Mixtures

9 A. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous MixtureCompoundElement MIXTUREPURE SUBSTANCE yesno Can it be chemically decomposed? noyes Is the composition uniform? noyes ColloidsSuspensions

10 A. Matter Flowchart  Examples:  graphite  pepper  sugar (sucrose)  paint  soda element hetero. mixture compound hetero. mixture solution

11 B. Pure Substances  Element  composed of identical atoms  EX: copper wire, aluminum foil

12 B. Pure Substances  Compound  composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio  properties differ from those of individual elements  EX: table salt (NaCl)

13 C. Mixtures  Combination of 2 or more pure substances. HeterogeneousHomogeneous

14 C. Mixtures  Solution  homogeneous  very small particles  particles don’t settle  EX: rubbing alcohol

15 C. Mixtures  Colloid  heterogeneous  medium-sized particles  particles don’t settle  EX: milk

16 C. Mixtures  Suspension  heterogeneous  large particles  particles settle  EX:fresh-squeezed lemonade

17 C. Mixtures  Examples:  mayonnaise  muddy water  fog  saltwater  Italian salad dressing colloid suspension colloid solution suspension

18 Ch. 1 - Matter III. Properties & Changes in Matter  Extensive vs. Intensive  Physical vs. Chemical

19 A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Extensive Property  depends on the amount of matter present  Intensive Property  depends on the identity of substance, not the amount

20 A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Examples:  boiling point  volume  mass  density  conductivity intensive extensive intensive

21 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Property  can be observed without changing the identity of the substance  Chemical Property  describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity

22 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  melting point  flammable  density  magnetic  tarnishes in air physical chemical physical chemical

23 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Change  changes the form of a substance without changing its identity  properties remain the same  Chemical Change  changes the identity of a substance  products have different properties

24 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Signs of a Chemical Change  change in color or odor  formation of a gas  formation of a precipitate (solid)  change in light or heat

25 B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  rusting iron  dissolving in water  burning a log  melting ice  grinding spices chemical physical chemical physical

26 How would you separate the following mixture? IRON FILINGS, SALT, CHALK POWDER AND WATER  Dissolve as much of the mixture as possible  Add water and stir  Filter the mixture so that the soluble salt will be obtained in the filtrate and the insoluble chalk powder will be the residue on the filter paper  Place the dry mixture into a beaker  Dry out the filter paper to keep the dry chalk powder  Use a magnet to attract and extract the iron filings from the dry mixture  Pour the filtrate into an evaporating basin to evaporate the water and leave behind the salt

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