Presentation on theme: "British & India 1500s: British sailed near India to trade in Asia. 1600s: British traders form East India Company- trading posts & forts in India. French."— Presentation transcript:
1 World History/Cultures Chapter 16- The Age of Imperialism Section 3- Division of Asia
2 British & India1500s: British sailed near India to trade in Asia.1600s: British traders form East India Company- trading posts & forts in India. French East India Company challenged British for control of India trade.1757: Battle of Plassey- British & Indian troops defeat French & the British expand in India.
3 Sepoy Rebellion1857: East India Company controls most of India. Sepoys rebel against British- didn’t want Christianity & European customs imposed on them.Outcome of Sepoy Rebellion: Massacres of British & Indians. British tighten control.1858: East India Company replaced by viceroy to rule by parliament. Treaties secured remaining Indian states.
4 India & NationalismBritish tried to stop unrest in India: paved roads, railways, telegraph lines, irrigation canals, schools & universities.Indians discriminated by British- forced to change ways. Example- Indians forced to raise cotton for British textile mills instead of wheat.1800s: millions of Indians die- severe food shortage.Indians want self rule.1885: Indian National Congress formed by business & professional leaders. Protests- wanted British to give more power to Indians.
5 China: limited trade with Europeans.: China ruled by Qing dynasty- weak economically, politically & militarily.
6 Unequal Treaties1800s: British break Chinese trade barriers & profit. Exchanged opium for tea, silk & porcelain. Opium smuggled & came from India & Turkey.1839: Chinese tried to stop smuggling- war broke out.1842: Opium War- British defeat Chinese.Treaty of Nanking: unequal treaty- forced China to yield to Westerners. British granted payment for war losses & island of Hong Kong. British citizens in China granted extraterritoriality- right to live under own law & courts.
7 Unequal Treaties con’t Unequal treaties increase foreign influence & weakened Qing dynasty.: Taiping Rebellion eroded dynasty’s control.1890s: European powers & Japan claim parts of China. US. didn’t.- “Open Door Policy”- open China to trade with other nations. Other powers agree to policy in 1899.
8 Chinese ResponsesReformers tried to modernize China.1800s: “self-strengthening movement”: western technology, education, agriculture & extra territory gained.Reform efforts failed.1894: War with Japan- China defeated & lost territory to Japan. Lost trading benefits & influence on Korea.
9 Chinese Responses con’t Reformers supported by Chinese emperor Guan Xu- Hundred Days of Reform- modernize government & new industries.Emperor’s mother, Ci Xi, regains power & stops reforms.1890s: anti-foreign feelings. Secret societies to remove diplomats, missionaries & entrepreneurs. Righteous & Harmonious Fists- Westerners call them “Boxers”.1900: Boxers attack foreigners in Beijing. Westerners end uprising. Chinese empress reverses policies.
10 Revolution 1911Empress Ci Xi attempts reforms but can’t maintain power. Chinese want a republic to replace Qing dynasty. Achieve this through revolution.1905: Revolutionary, Sun-Yat Sen & others form United League. Later known as Guomindang or nationalist party. Goal to modernize China based on 3 Principles of the People: nationalism (freedom from foreign control); democracy (representative government); livelihood (economic well-being).1908: Empress Ci Xi died & two year old son, Pu Yi emperor.1911: Revolution.1912: Sun-Yat Sen first president of Chinese republic.
11 Japan1500s: European traders in Japan.1600s: Japanese stop most of trade with Europeans. Shogun, military commander ruled Japan. Emperor- figurehead.1853: Trade resumes in Japan- Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with American warships.1854: Shogun signs treaty with Perry.
12 Meiji LeadersShogun signed unequal treaties with foreign powers and overthrown in 1868.Samurai give allegiance to new Emperor, Mutsuhito but retain power.Mutsuhito - enlightened emperor - Meiji leader.Meiji leaders: strong military, parliamentary government & universal education (loyal, skilled citizens). New ruling class based on talent not birthright.
13 Industrialization1870s: Strengthen economy. Revised tax structure, modern currency, railroads, port facilities & communications.1880s: Economy expanded quickly. New technological methods & cheap labor produced affordable goods.
14 World Power1890s: efficient government & strong military. Needed natural resources & expanded empire.Korea: Koreans revolt against Chinese in Japan intervened & defeated Chinese in Sino-Japanese War. Korea independent but Japan partially controlled Korea’s trade.Thousands of Japanese settle in Korea.Russians interested in Korea & clashed with Japan.
15 World Power con’tRussian troops in Port Arthur in Manchuria.1904: Japanese attack Port Arthur.1905: Japanese victorious in Russo-Japanese War. Russia signed treaty granting Japanese control over Korea.1910: Japanese annexed Korea as a colony. Japan continued to expand own empire for 35 years.
16 Southeast Asia- 2 regions Island Southeast Asia: East Indies & Philippines. Mainland Southeast Asia: Indochina & Malay Peninsulas.s: Imperialists- Portugal, Spain, The Netherlands, Great Britain, France & United States.
17 Islands of Southeast Asia 1800s: Dutch controlled East Indies & Spain controlled Philippines.Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)- natural resources. Dutch enforced culture system for raw materials. Dutch discouraged westernization.1825: Prince Diponegoro from East Indian Island of Java revolts against Dutch. Ended in failure & Dutch maintained control.
18 Islands of Southeast Asia con’t 1900s: Dutch rule extended to northern Sumatra & the Celebes.Philippines: Spanish ruled & Filipinos worked on plantations for low wages. Filipinos revolt in 1896.1898: U.S. declared war on Spain & promised to free Philippines. U.S. wins Spanish-American war, broke promise & colonize Philippines. Filipinos led by Emilio Aguinaldo rebel against Americans but defeated by U.S.
19 Mainland Southeast Asia 1800s: Burma (Myanmar), Malaya, Vietnam, Siam (Thailand), Cambodia & Laos. Great Britain & France struggled for domination of this area.s: British took control of Burma & Malaya. France conquered Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia & Laos).1893: Siam stays independent as Great Britain & France avoided conflict and defined spheres of influence.European imperialists disrupted Southeast Asia: western influences on traditions & customs; forcing local farmers/workers to grow cash crops, mine coal & cut teak trees.