2 Social Change Alterations in various aspects of a society over time Values, norms, traditions, religion, etcSocial ChangeCyclical TheoryEvolutionary TheoryEquilibrium TheoryConflict TheoryFunctionalist PerspectiveChange occurs to maintain order and stabilityConflict PerspectiveChange occurs due to conflict within a society
3 Cyclical Theory FUNCTIONALIST Historical view of social change in which societies are seen as rising and then falling or as continuously moving back and forth between stages of development.Like a human life - childhood, youth, adulthood, old age gives way for new societiesCritics – doesn’t explain WHY societies change
4 Evolutionary Theory FUCTIONALIST Views change as a process that moves in one direction – tending toward increasing complexityChange = additive processAttempts to explain WHY societies change because of changing economic base and technological advancesCritics – not all societies change for future progress
5 Other Parts of Society Adjust Equilibrium TheoryFUNCTIONALISTSociety is like a living organism in which change in one part of the social system produces change in all other parts as the system attempts to regain balance, or equilibrium.Critics – always assumes equilibrium can be met again, some societies constantly have disruptions without social changeDisrupted StabilityOther Parts of Society AdjustEquilibrium RestoredSocial Change!
6 Conflict Theory CONFLICT Social change results from conflicts between groups with opposing interests.Mostly conflicts over power and wealthConflict is natural change is inevitableSocieties are in a state of constant changeViolent and NonviolentClass conflicts – French Revolution, Occupy MovementRacial conflicts – Civil Rights MovementGender conflicts – Women’s Liberation MovementPolitical – Rise of the Tea PartyCritics – too narrow, conflict doesn’t always cause social change (ex: technological change)
7 But What CAUSES Social Change? We have our theories… but what contributes to the shifts, conflicts, and cycles that cause social change to occur?Population shiftsUrbanization and modernizationCollective behaviorSocial movements
8 Population ShiftsDemography – the scientific study of human populationsShifts in PopulationBirth RateDeath RateMigration Rate
9 Population ShiftsMigration rate – annual difference between in- migration and out-migration in a societyCity, townStateCountryPush and pull factorsPushed out – loss of job, religious persecutionPulled in – opportunity for job, religious freedom
10 Population Shifts Birth rate = (# live births/total population) X 1000 For every 1000 people, how many live births occurred in a year?Death rate = (# deaths/total population) X 1000For every 1000 people, how many died in a year?Infant Mortality Rate – indicates the overall health of a society = (# infant deaths/total live births) X 1000For every 1000 live births, how many infants died in a year?
11 The Wealth and Health of Nations Population ShiftsCountries with a…Low birth rateLow death rateLow infant mortality rate… have generally a higher life expectancyaverage # of years a person in a particular society can expect to liveHow are population shifts related to social change?More/less people in a society can lead to social change because more or less needs need to be met.Ex: baby boom era after WWII – immediately more childcare programs, teachers, and schools were needed. As they got older, there was more competition for jobs, less social mobility. As baby boomers enter old age, problems concerning health care and social security arise. More older people are staying in the work force, which creates issues concerning longer working hours, retraining programs, and reeducation programs. As they live longer, new retirement/old age facilities will need to be created, as well as more doctors focusing on geriatric medicine, and more media will be developed to target the aging elderly population.Also, societies with relatively low population shifts are generally not undergoing massive social change movements. To stabilize a population, social change needs to occur.GapminderThe Wealth and Health of NationsVideoWebsite
12 Urbanization and Modernization Urbanization – the concentration of population in citiesModernization – process by which a society becomes increasingly complex as the society moves towards industrializationURBANIZATIONMODERNIZATION
13 US Urbanization Periods of growth in US cities… Colonial settlements –Urban expansion –Metropolitan era –Metropolis – large city that politically, economically, and socially controls an urban areaUrban decentralization – present
14 Modernization Urbanization leads to modernization How are urbanization and modernization connected to social change?As societies start to urbanize and modernize, this requires people to come into close interaction with one another clashing of ideas/thoughts/opinions which creates conflict and can induce social change.Technological advances (new jobs, ways of life, religion loses some authority as scientific knowledge increases)Increased production (pollution, environmental issues)Longer life expectancy (healthcare for aging people, jobs for older people)Increased communication (more ideas being shared)Educational institutions (train professionals to work in urban jobs like banks, government, companies, etc)
15 Collective BehaviorCollectivity - a gathering of people who do not normally interact and who do not share clearly defined norms. exhibit collective behaviorCollective behavior - The relatively spontaneous social behavior that occurs when people respond to similar stimuli.CrowdsFashionPublic opinion
16 Crowds Casual Crowd Conventional Crowd Expressive Crowd Acting Crowd Temporary gathering of people who are in close enough proximity to interact.Least interaction, least organized, most temporaryEx: people in line for movie tickets, people observing the aftermath of an accidentCasual CrowdLittle interaction, but highly structured, rules for behavior, usually gathered for a common purposeEx: funeral, watching a film in a theater, baseball gameConventional CrowdForms around emotionally charged activities, behaviors would be considered inappropriate in other timesEx: rock concert, New Years Eve in Times SquareExpressive CrowdViolent, emotions are more intense (hostile, destructive), particular target, violates established normsEx: violence that breaks out at sporting events towards officials, riots, mobsActing Crowd
17 FashionEnthusiastic attachments among large numbers of people for particular styles of appearance or behaviorPresent in industrialized societiesChange is valued and desiredGet the newest and improved fashion!Social mobility is valuedCan be demonstrated by having fashionable clothes, car, home, etc.Fashion can represent desired social change.
18 Public OpinionPublic – a group of geographically scattered people who are concerned with or engaged in a particular issue.A different publics for different issues – changes depending on who gains/loses interest in an issuePublic opinion - Refers to the collection of differing attitudes that members of a public have about a particular issueImportant because the public has a great deal of “sway” in a society – politics, laws, businesses, advertising, etc
19 Propaganda to Sway Public Opinion TechniqueDescriptionTestimonialsEndorsements by famous people to transfer the public’s admiration for the celebrity to the social movementTransferAttempt to associate the social movement with something the public already approves of or respectsBandwagonAppeals to the public’s desire to conform by promoting the social movement as already popular with the publicTestimonial - Gun Violence and Control Celebrity PSATransfer – Dodge Challenger “Freedom” Commercial
20 Propaganda to Sway Public Opinion Anti-Obama Ad – name callingName CallingUses negative labels or images in order to make opponents of the social movement appear unfavorablePlain-Folks AppealAttempts to sway public opinion by appealing to the “average citizen” with whom everyone can identityGlittering GeneralitiesUses words that sound positive but have little real meaning – portrays social movement in positive light but provides little actual informationCard-StackingPresents facts in a way that puts the social movement in a favorable light – presents stats or survey results in a particular way
21 Collective Behavior How can crowds cause social change? How can fashion cause social change?How can public opinion cause social change?BECAUSE COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR CREATES SOCIAL MOVEMENTS!!!
22 Social MovementsA long-term deliberate effort to promote or prevent social change.Long-lastingHighly structured with formally recognized leadersDeliberate attempt to block or institute societal changeHow many famous social movements can you identify?
23 Reactionary Movements MAIN GOAL: to reverse current social trendsSuspicious of and hostile to social changeReturn society to some version of the past that is seen as “ideal” or “better”Neo-NazismAnti-feminism
24 Conservative Movements MAIN GOAL: to protect what they see as society’s prevailing values from change that they consider to be a threat to those values.Early 20th CenturyTemperance MovementChristian Right Movement, began in 1940sAnti Same-Sex Marriage Groups
25 Revisionary Movements MAIN GOAL: to improve, or revise, some part of society through social change.Usually seek legal meansTypically focuses on a certain issueLeft: Civil Rights MovementAbove: Pro Same-Sex MarriageRight: Women’s Suffrage Movement
26 Revolutionary Movement MAIN GOAL: a total and radical change of the existing social structure and governmentAmerican RevolutionArab Spring