Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16, Social Change and social Movements Key Terms."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16, Social Change and social Movements Key Terms
social change Alteration of social interactions, institutions, stratification systems, and elements of culture over time. unidimensional evolutionary theories Argued that societies follow a single evolutionary path from simple to highly- differentiated, or from “primitive” to “civilized”.
multidimensional evolutionary theory Gives a central role to technology as responsible for change, but focused on other relationships among institutions as well. globalization The increased interconnectedness and interdependence of different societies around the world.
modernization theory States that global development is a worldwide process affecting all societies touched by technological change that has made societies more homogeneous in terms of differentiation and complexity.
world systems theory Argues that all nations are members of a worldwide system of unequal political and economic relationships that benefit the developed and technologically advanced core nations at the expense of the less technologically advanced and less developed non-core (peripheral) nations.
dependency theory Maintains that the highly industrialized nations tend to imprison developing nations in dependent relationships, through trade and debt dependency, and other obstacles to development. other-directedness Behavior of the individual is guided by the observed behavior of others and is characterized by rigid conformity and attempts to “keep up with the Joneses.
inner-directedness The individual is guided by internal principles and morals and is relatively impervious to the superficialities of those around him or her. tradition-directedness Strong conformity to long-standing and time- honored norms, practices and styles of life.
collective behavior Occurs when the usual conventions are suspended and people establish new forms of behavior in response to an emerging situation. social movements An organized social group that acts with some continuity and coordination to promote or resist change in society or other social unit.
personal transformation movements Aim to change the individual, focus on development of new meaning within individual lives. social change movements Aim to change some aspect of society.
reform movements Seek change through legal or other mainstream political means. radical movements Seek fundamental change in the structure of society.
reactionary movements Organize to resist change or to reinstate an earlier social order that participants perceive to be better. mobilization The process by which all social moments and other leaders secure people and resources for the movement.
resource mobilization theory An explanation of how social movements develop that focuses on how movements gain momentum by gathering resources, competing with other movements and mobilizing the resources available to them. political process theory Movements achieve success by exploiting a combination of internal factors and external factors.
frames Schemes of interpretation that allow people in groups to perceive, identify and label events within their lives that can become the basis for collective action. new social movement theory Links culture, ideology, and identity conceptually to explain how new identities are formed within social movements.