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Beginnings of an American Identity 5-3: The French and Indian War.

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Presentation on theme: "Beginnings of an American Identity 5-3: The French and Indian War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beginnings of an American Identity 5-3: The French and Indian War

2 Braddock’s Defeat Edward Willard Deming France Claims Western Lands Britain hoped to extend its colonies into the Ohio River Valley in defiance of France Charles de Langlade was trying to force the British to leave the Ohio Valley so the Indians would trade with the French instead

3 Native American Alliances Native Americans west of the Appalachians were at war with each other because … the Iroquois were trying to expand their lands in order to control the fur trade The Huron and Algonquin allied with France The Iroquois allied with Britain The Taking of Mary Jemison Robert Griffing

4 Between 1689 and 1763 Britain and France fought 4 major wars : Conflict in the Ohio Valley 1 - The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) AKA: 2 – The War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) AKA: Queen Anne’s War 3 – The War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748) AKA: King George’s War 4 – The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) (Begins in America in 1754!) King William’s War AKA:The French and Indian War

5 Conflict in the Ohio Valley The first three wars were caused by competition in Europe … … the 4 th was caused by competition in North America over control of … the Ohio River Valley

6 Navy Controlled Trade Routes Smaller navy Defends Europe Conflict in the Ohio Valley Large Population (1,485,000) Small Population (75,000) BritainFrance Organized Colonial Militias Few Troops in Canada Colonies are Self-Supporting Relied Heavily upon Imports 13 Separate Governments Single Colonial Government Settlements Spread Along Coast Settlements Clustered Together Few Indian Allies (Iroquois) Strong Alliances with Indians

7 War Begins and Spreads 1.Washington was sent to evict the French from the Ohio Valley 2.When he got close, his men shot at a group of French diplomats 3.French troops from Ft. Duquesne came after him 4.Washington hurriedly built a fort and named it Ft. Necessity 5.Washington was soon forced to surrender his newly-built fort

8 War Begins and Spreads The Albany Plan of Union … Purpose: Author: Rejected: to unify the colonies in order to defend themselves against the French Benjamin Franklin Colonial legislatures did not want to give up any control

9 Braddock’s Defeat Braddock Defeated because … Stubborn and refused to listen to advice Insisted upon using European tactics in North American forests George Washington Bravely rallied survivors and led them back to Virginia

10 The British Take Quebec Britain gets a new S. of S. and then a new King William Pitt Pitt sent his best generals and troops to fight in America Pitt raised money to pay for colonial supplies and troops To win … The British would have to capture French cities in Canada – Quebec and Montreal and George III

11 The British Take Quebec Defeat French led by the Marquis de Montcalm British troops led by James Wolfe scale Quebec’s “unclimbable” cliffs

12 The British Take Quebec Both Montcalm and Wolfe died in the Battle The Death of General James Wolfe Benjamin West

13 The Treaty of Paris, 1763 Britain gains all land from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River France gives Louisiana (west of the Mississippi) to Spain France keeps only Haiti in the Caribbean and the islands of St. Pierre and Miguelon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence

14 Pontiac’s Rebellion Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers through the Cumberland Gap - Benjamin West

15 British settlers (no longer worried about the French) were moving across the Appalachians and taking Native lands Pontiac’s Rebellion Pontiac wanted to stop the loss of Native land and culture in the lands west of the Appalachians The Siege of Fort Detroit Frederic Sackrider Remington

16 Pontiac’s Rebellion Forbade settlement west of the Appalachians … … including in the fertile land of the Ohio River Valley British government passed the Proclamation of 1763

17 5-3: The French and Indian War

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