3 The U.S. Constitution Outlines the U.S. government Establishes the ruling principles of that government
4 Preamble – What does it mean? We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
5 Parts of the U.S. Constitution SectionPurposePreambleIntroduces reasons for creating the documentArticle IOutlines the legislative branchArticle IIOutlines the executive branchArticle IIIOutlines the judicial branchArticle IVDiscusses relations between the states and between the states and the national governmentArticle VDescribes how to amend the ConstitutionArticle VIDeclares the Constitution to be the supreme law of the landArticle VIILists requirements for ratifying the Constitution27 amendmentsModifications to the ConstitutionNote to teachers: This chart corresponds with Figure 3.1 of textbook, page 69.
6 Basic Principles of the U.S. Constitution There are five basic principles of the U.S. Constitution:Limited governmentPopular sovereigntyFederalismSeparation of powersChecks and balancesThese principles resulted from agreements and debate of the Constitutional Convention, 1787.
7 The Three Branches of Government Article I - Legislative branch:Makes lawsArticle II - Executive branch:Executes, or carries out, lawsArticle III - Judicial branch:Interprets laws and judges whether they have been broken
8 Article IV – Relations among the states Section 1 – Full Faith and Credit ClauseStates must grant each other “full faith and credit” on “public acts, records, and judicial proceedings”Means legal decisions of states must be respected and held to by other statesSection 2 – Privileges and Immunities ClauseStates must grant residents of other states all “privileges and immunities” they give to their own residents
9 Article V –Amendment the constitution 2 ways to propose an amendment1. 2/3 vote in both houses of CongressAll 27 Amendments were proposed this way2. Constitutional Convention requested by 2/3 of the statesHas never been used2 ways to ratify amendment1. 3/4 of state legislatures approve it26 of the 27 Amendments were ratified this way2. 3/4 of conventions called by the states approve itOnly the 21st Amendment was ratified this way
10 Article VI – Role of the National Government Section 2 – Supremacy ClauseFederal laws are always supreme over state laws, U.S. Constitution is supreme over all state constitutions
11 Article VII – Ratification of the Constitution Only 9 of the 13 states had to ratify the constitution
15 These are awesome! And you get to memorize them! The Bill of RightsThese are awesome!And you get to memorize them!
16 The 1st Amendment Freedom of Religion Establishment Clause – government cannot establish a religionFree Exercise Clause – government cannot prohibit you from practicing religionFreedom of SpeechFreedom of the PressRight to AssemblyRight to Petition
18 The 3rd AmendmentNo Quartering of Soldiers in Times of Peace
19 The 4th AmendmentProtection Against Unreasonable Search and Seizure
20 The 5th AmendmentNo Double Jeopardy (Can’t be charged with the same crime twice)Protection against self-incriminationGuarantee of Due Process of LawGovernment can’t take property without just compensation
21 The 6th Amendment Right to a Criminal Trial by Jury Trial must be speedy, publicMust be in the state where the crime was committedRight to legal counselRight to call witnesses favorable to the defendant
22 The 7th Amendment Right to a Civil Trial by Jury Civil – not criminal, typically a lawsuit for money or to repeal a government action
23 The 8th AmendmentProtection Against Cruel and Unusual Punishment
24 The 9th Amendment Rights Retained by the People In other words, just because a right isn’t listed here in the Constitution doesn’t mean that people don’t have that right
25 The 10th Amendment Powers Reserved for the States All powers that are not given to the national government are reserved for the states
26 Other Amendments Amendments 11-27 Research your assigned amendment Create an informational posterPresent to class