Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 – Principles and Goals of US Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 – Principles and Goals of US Government 12th Grade PODMs. Nestico
2 Five Principles of American Government Limited GovernmentPopular SovereigntySeparation of PowersChecks and BalancesFederalism
3 Limited GovernmentGovernment does not have authority in all matters – people have rightsBased on John Locke and Tommy J.’s notion that people have certain “natural rights”Found today in our constitution in the
4 Popular Sovereignty Popular = majority of people Sovereignty = the right to rule oneselfExamples found in Amendments to the US Constitution that extended popular sovereignty (5):15th (1870) – African American vote17th (1913) – Senators now elected by popular vote (previously appointed)19th (1920) – Women may vote24th (1964) – Poll tax outlawed26th (1971) – 18 yr. olds may vote
5 Separation of PowersDivides power between three branches of government: legislative, executive and judicialPower split to prevent any one person or group from acquiring too much powerHow much power is too much power? What can happen in terms of types of government?
6 Checks and BalancesEach branch of government is granted powers that automatically “check” the powers of the othersExample: while the Legislative branch has the power to make a law, the Executive branch may veto it, and the Judicial branch has the power of “judicial review”
7 FederalismPower is divided between a national government and its subdivisions (states)Certain powers granted ONLY to the states while others are granted ONLY to the federal government.Supremacy Clause– Article VI, Clause 2 – the law according to the federal Constitution remains supremeJudicial Review used frequently regarding this principleFramers anticipated there may be conflicts between states and the federal government and so the Supremacy Clause was established to deal with thisIn most cases, federal law reigns supreme.
8 Federalism and Judicial Review Judicial Review – Supreme Court can overturn a law, but can’t make a new law or enforce oneMarbury vs. Madison (1803) – rendered as the first case that established judicial reviewMarbury wanted the job he was promised as a judge and sued James Madison (secretary of State) to get it.Supreme Court agreed Marbury was entitled to the jobBUT – Supreme Court could not issue an order to enforce itCase is significant because it is the 1st Supreme Court case to deem a Congressional Act unconstitutional
9 Parts of the US Constitution PreambleArticles (7)Amendments (27)Bill of Rights through 10Remaining 17 Amendments added through time
10 Preamble – Six Goals of American Government Form a more perfect unionEstablish justiceInsure domestic tranquilityProvide for the common defensePromote the general welfareSecure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity
11 1. Form a More Perfect Union Federalism is born under this goal. This marks the shift from a confederate system to a federal systemStates had previously been operating under a confederacy and it was not workingExamplesHow are we still meeting this goal today?Common currencyNo passport to travel from state to statePower tax and enforce some laws at a federal level
12 2. Establish Justice To make things fair and equal for all over time, the translation continues to changeAs with popular sovereignty, it is reflected in the amendmentsEstablished a federal court systemHow are we still meeting this goal today?Is fair always equal or vice-versa?
13 3. Insure Domestic Tranquility Domestic = “home”Tranquility = “peace”Therefore, this goal seeks to assure we have peace here at home within our own countryEstablished criminal laws, police forces, etc.How are we still meeting this goal today?
14 4. Provide for the Common Defense As opposed to domestic tranquility, this goal is set to protect America from foreign invasion – outside of the US.Establishes a military, Homeland Security, etc.How are we still meeting this goal today?
15 5. Promote the General Welfare Founders felt that no person should suffer fromDiseaseHungerPovertyFollowing the Great Depression, many welfare programs were started to combat these societal issuesHow are we still meeting this goal today?
16 6. Secure the Blessings of Liberty for ourselves and our Posterity Posterity = children or generations to comeThe founders set this goal to assure when writing the constitution that it could not easily be changed so that freedom would be secure for all for a very long timeHow are we still meeting this goal today?
17 Articles I. The Legislature (Congress) II. The Executive Branch (President)III. The Judicial Branch (Supreme Court)IV. Full Faith & Credit ClauseV. How to amend the ConstitutionVI. National Supremacy ClauseVII. Ratification of the ConstitutionFederal and State – full faith and credit means that citizens of one state must abide by laws of another state when in that state. Federal government respects all laws of the individual states provided they are not in direct conflict with individual lawAmending the Constitution – Need either 2/3 House and 2/3 Senate OR 2/3 (34 of 50) of states to propose formal amendment. From there ¾ (38 of 50) of states need to ratify or approve
18 Amendments – Bill of Rights 1st – Right to free speech, assembly, petition, press, etc.2nd – Right to bear arms3rd – No quartering of troops4th – Right to privacy – no illegal search and seizure5th – Protection against double jeopardy and self-incrimination
19 Amendments – Bill of Rights 6th – Due Process rights in criminal proceedings7th – Due Process right of a jury trial extended to civil proceedings8th – Protection from Cruel and Unusual Punishment and Excessive BailDue process – must be formally notified of charges against you, fair and speedy trial, public/jury trial, right to an attorney, etc.
20 Amendments – Bill of Rights 9th – Enumerated rights - other rights aside from those listed may exist, and just because they are not listed doesn't mean they can be violated.10th – Powers reserved to the States/People - any power not granted to the federal government belongs to the states or to the people
21 News Article Assignment– Principles of American Government In groups of four, search, read and choose 4 news articles pertaining to America or American Government online and print them.CNN Fox news online MSNBC OnlineYou must be able to apply one or more of the 5 principles of government to each articleEach person in the group should be assigned a specific principle of government
22 Article Assignment - continued The following must be answered regarding each article:1. Provide a thorough, written summary of the article2. Identify the primary principle of government that appliesto the article and explain how/why.3. Determine if the article is a positive or negative exampleof the principle at hand and explain4. Identify any other principles that may apply and explainhow/why.5. In your opinion, is the way the government principlebeing applied in this article what the Framers had in mind?