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The Constitution (*for the purpose of your Constitution Exam – terms in RED you must be able to define and explain) Seven Major Principles: popular sovereignty.

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Presentation on theme: "The Constitution (*for the purpose of your Constitution Exam – terms in RED you must be able to define and explain) Seven Major Principles: popular sovereignty."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Constitution (*for the purpose of your Constitution Exam – terms in RED you must be able to define and explain) Seven Major Principles: popular sovereignty republicanism limited governmentfederalism separation of powerschecks and balances individual rights

2 Popular Sovereignty “We the People…” reinforces idea of the authority of the citizens people consent to be governed *What does that mean?? people also specify the rules under which they will be governed

3 Republicanism voters hold the power in a republican system republic or representative democracy: system of limited government where the people are the final authority

4 Limited Government government limited to the powers specified by the people Article I states specifically the powers the government will and will not have other limits appear in the Bill of Rights

5 Federalism the principle of shared power three types of government powers enumerated powers – belong only to the federal government reserved powers – power retained by the states concurrent powers – powers the state and federal governments share

6 Separation of Powers prevent any single group from having too much control provides for three branches of government legislative branch – Congress makes the laws executive branch – headed by President – carries out the laws judicial branch – Supreme Court – interprets/applies the laws

7 The Legislative Branch The House of Representatives and Senate = Congress Role of Congress appropriate funds – set aside money for government spending impeach – bring formal charges against any government official represent constituents – the people of their home state/district *Who are your representatives in Congress???


9 The Executive Branch includes President, Vice President, and executive offices and agencies Roles of the President Chief Executive Chief Diplomat Commander in Chief Chief of State (represents all Americans internationally) Legislative Leader

10 The Judicial Branch Three main categories of Courts: District Courts (91) – cover criminal and civil cases which concern federal laws/regulations Appellate Courts – review the lower court’s decisions at the request of the loser The Supreme Court – final authority Supreme Court justices appointed for life What cases has the Supreme Court recently decided on???

11 The Rights of American Citizens The Right to Protection from Unfair Actions controlled by parts of the Constitution and Bill of Rights ex: right to an attorney when accused of a crime, etc. Equal Treatment 5 th Amendment: “no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process under the law” due process: government must follow procedures, treating everyone equally 14 th Amendment: requires every state to grant citizens equal protection under the law Basic Freedoms 1 st Amendment: freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, etc.

12 Responsibilities of Citizens Duties obey the law pay taxes defend the nation jury duty obtain education Responsibilities be well-informed of who your representatives are of your rights VOTE! VOTE! VOTE!

13 The Constitution Three Parts Preamble Articles Amendments First Signed: September 17, 1787 – included Preamble and 7 Articles Bill of Rights (1 st ten Amendments) – added 1791

14 Preamble - introductory paragraph We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

15 The Articles Article I - The Legislative Branch creates the Congress to make laws divides Congress into a Senate and House of Representatives makes rules for election of members gives some powers to Congress, limits others

16 Article II - The Executive Branch sets up the presidency and vice presidency to carry out or execute the laws election rules powers of the president how to impeach Article III - The Judicial Branch sets up the Supreme Court duties and powers of Supreme Court and federal courts power of judicial review defines treason

17 Article IV - The States creates rules for states to get along with other states guarantees to states admitting states to the Union Article V - Making Amendments how to add amendments to the Constitution Article VI - Supreme Law of the Land the Constitution is the highest law of the land

18 Article VII - Ratification the Constitution became effective when 9 out of 13 states approved it

19 AmendmentProtection 1Freedom of religion, press, assembly, and petition 2Right to bear arms 3Quartering of Troops 4Protection against unreasonable search and seizure 5Right to Due Process, protection against double jeopardy, and self-incrimination 6Right to a speedy and fair trial – right to a trial by jury, and to have an attorney 7Common law suits (trial by jury) 8Protection against cruel and unusual punishment, excessive bail/fines 9Rights not named – ensures that this list of rights aren’t the only rights given to people 10Powers reserved to the States – if the Constitution does not specify on a topic, then decisions rest with the states Bill of Rights (1791)

20 AmendmentProtectionYear 11Lawsuits against states (any suit against an individual state must be tried in that state) 1795 12Election of President and Vice President (separate ballots in the Electoral College) 1804 13Abolition of Slavery1865 14Rights of Citizens (originally rights of freed slaves – now interpreted to include everyone); Penalty for insurrection 1868 15Voting Rights not to be denied on basis of race1870 16Income Tax1913 17Direct Election of Senators – by the people instead of state legislatures 1913 18Prohibition of sale, transportation, production of alcohol 1919 Other Amendments

21 Other Amendments, Continued AmendmentProtectionYear 19Woman Suffrage1920 20Lame Duck – sets new dates for Congress to begin its term and for inauguration of President and VP; succession of VP at death of President 1933 21Repeal Prohibition (Amendment 18)1933 22Presidential Term Limits (2)1951 23Washington DC Electors – citizens of DC could now vote for President/VP 1961 24No Poll Tax1964 25Presidential succession – VP takes over leadership if President is disabled; also sets VP replacement procedure 1967 26Voting age = 181971 27Congressional Salary Restraints – pay raises do not take effect until following term 1992

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