Presentation on theme: "Ecology: The study of Interactions among Organisms and its environment including: Abiotic factors are nonliving factors such as temp. soil, air, rocks."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology: The study of Interactions among Organisms and its environment including: Abiotic factors are nonliving factors such as temp. soil, air, rocks Biotic Factors are living parts of the ecosystem
Populations vs. Communities: A population is a group of organisms of the same species living in a certain area All populations interacting together in a given area is a community Ex. Frogs + fish + algae = community
Habitats are: Place in the ecosystem where an organism lives Determined by both biotic and abiotic factors Ex. Earthworm = moist soil, dead organic material
Niche: The role of the organism in its environment Includes feeding habits, reproduction, habitat, and what it contributes to its surrounding
Autotrophs: Make their own food PRODUCERS Provide food to consumers Most carry out photosynthesis (solar light energy being converted into food glucose!!) Ex. Green Plants!! Some producers are chemosynthetic – ability to create food by using energy stored in inorganic molecules
Types of Heterotrophs include: Herbivores eat only plants
Types of Heterotrophs include: carnivores eat only meat predators- kill and eat their prey prey - the animal that is killed and eaten scavengers feed on dead and decaying meat ex. Buzzards, crows, hyenas
Energy Flow in an Ecosystem: Includes: producers (Autotrophs ) make their own food consumers (heterotrophs) obtain or eat their food from the environment Decomposers (a.k.a saprobes ) break down left over remains of plants and animals
FOOD CHAINS: Are a transfer or 1 pathway of energy through an ecosystem Solar Energy from the sun is converted by producers (photosynthesis) into chemical energy or FOOD
FOOD CHAINS cont… Show the relationship b/w Producers and Consumers Energy is transferred from the producer to the consumer that eats it. Herbivores are first order consumers gaining the most energy from the producers Omnivores and Carnivores are secondary consumers getting left over energy
FOOD CHAINS cont… The feeding relationship shows the transfer of energy which forms a food chain The transfer of energy moves from producer to consumer to decomposers Ex. Sun plant grasshopper bird cat Decomposers
Cycles in Nature: Autotrophs: use the sun’s energy to produce their own food in a process called photosynthesis In photosynthesis CO 2 is absorbed (taken in) from the environment and O 2 (Oxygen) is released as a waste.
Cycles in Nature: Heterotrophs: take in the Oxygen and use it for cellular activities Releases CO 2 into the environment as a waste The process is called cellular respiration
The Carbon Cycle: The Carbon Cycle is a balance between Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen in the air.
Remember… A population is a group of organisms of the same species living in a certain area
Discussion on Populations: change over time Most stabilize rather than continuously grow As populations increase in #, it puts more demand on the resources available such as food, shelter, and water Environmental factors that limit the size of a population are called limiting factors.
Limiting Factors: Environmental factors that limit the size of a population The availability of resources Ex. Food, water, shelter, oxygen, sun
Density-Dependent Factors: limit the growth of a population when the population reaches a certain size Ex. Disease, competition, predators, and food Population Density The number of organisms in a given area Predation, competition, and the spread of disease all are influenced by population density
Carrying Capacity: The largest number of organisms (of one species) that can be supported for an unlimited amount of time Occurs when # of deaths and births are about equal If a population goes over the carrying capacity the number of deaths is greater than the # of births If the population is under the carrying capacity then…
Logistic Model: Takes Limiting factors into account Includes carrying capacity -the number of individuals the environment can support over a period of time Increased birth rates causes growth rates to increase Growth will decrease when a population reaches the carrying capacity. Birth rate = Death rate when a population reaches carrying capacity therefore GROWTH