Presentation on theme: "Interactions of Living Things Guided Notes"— Presentation transcript:
1Interactions of Living Things Guided Notes Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy
2GPS: S7L4Students will examine the dependence of organisms on one another and their environments.
3EcologyEcology is the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and their environment.An organism’s environment consists of all the things that affect the organism.Biotic describes living factors in the environment.Abiotic describes the nonliving part of the environment, including water, rocks, light, and temperature.
45 Levels of Environmental Organization 1st level – Individual organismany living thing2nd level – Populationa group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area3rd level – Communityall the populations of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other
55 Levels of Environmental Organization 4th level – Ecosystema community of organisms and their abiotic environment, such as the rain forest or desert5th level – Biospherethe part of the Earth where life existsIncludes any organism found in the air, land and water
6AutotrophsA group of organisms that can make their own food by using energy from their surroundingsAutotrophs are also called producers because they produce all of the food that heterotrophs useWithout autotrophs, there would be no life on this planetEx. Plants and Algae
7Autotrophs Chemotrophs Autotrophs that get their energy from inorganic substances, such as saltLive deep down in the ocean where there is no sunlightEx. Bacteria and Deep Sea Worms
8Heterotrophs Organisms that cannot make their own food Another term for heterotroph is consumer because they need to consume other organisms to obtain energy and nutrientsEx. Rabbits, Deer, Mushrooms
9Heterotrophs Consumers 1. Scavengers/Detritivores – feed on the tissue of dead organisms (both plants and animals)Ex. – Vultures, Crows, and Shrimp
12Heterotrophs Consumers 4. Omnivores – eat BOTH plants and animals Ex. – Bears and Humans
13Heterotrophs Consumers 5. Decomposers – absorb any dead material and break it down into simple nutrients or fertilizersEx. – Bacteria and Mushrooms
14GPS: S7L4bStudents will explain that in a food web, sunlight is the source of energy and that this energy moves from organism to organism.
15Transfer of EnergyThe energy in an organism that is eaten goes into the body of the organism that eats itNo organism ever receives ALL of the energy from the organism it just ate. For example:When a zebra eats the grass, it does not obtain all of the energy the grass has (much of it is not eaten)When a lion eats a zebra, it does not get all of the energy from the zebra (much of it is lost as heat)
16Trophic LevelsEach step in this transfer of energy is known as a trophic levelThe main trophic levels are producers, consumers, and decomposersOnly 10% of the energy from one trophic level is transferred to the next – this is called the 10% law
17GPS: S7L4aStudents will demonstrate that in a food web matter is transferred from one organism to another and can recycle between organisms and their environments.
18Food ChainsThe energy flow from one trophic level to the next is known as a food chainA food chain is simple and directIt involves one organism at each trophic levelPrimary Consumers – eat autotrophs (producers)Secondary Consumers – eat the primary consumersTertiary Consumers – eat the secondary consumersDecomposers – bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and recycle the material back into the environment
19Food Web In most ecosystems, organisms eat more than one thing When more organisms are involved, it is known as a FOOD WEB – a system of many connected food chains in an ecosystemFood webs are more complex than food chains and involve lots of organisms
20Food WebNotice the direction that the arrow points “”, the arrow points in the direction of the energy transfer, NOT “what ate what”
21Ecological Pyramid (Energy Pyramid) An ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different trophic levels in an ecosystemShows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained at each trophic levelThe pyramid shows which level has the most energy and the highest number of organisms
22GPS: S7L4dStudents will categorize relationships between organisms that are competitive or mutually beneficial.
23Types of InteractionsThere are four main ways that individuals and populations affect one another in an ecosystem:CompetitionPredator and preySymbiosisCoevolution
24Types of InteractionsCompetition happens when more than one individual or population tries to use the same resources, such as food, water, shelter, or sunlightPredator-prey interactions occur when one organism eats another to get energyThe organism that is eaten is called the prey, and the organism that eats the prey is called the predator
25Types of InteractionsSymbiosis is a close and permanent association between organisms of different speciesCommensalism – a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not affectedExample: Barnacles on a whaleMutualism – a relationship in which both organisms benefit from each otherExample: Birds eating pest off a rhino’s backParasitism – A relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmedExample: Ticks on a dog
26Types of InteractionsCoevolution occurs when a long-term change happens in two species because of their close relationshipEx: The relationship between some flowers and the organisms that pollinate them. Flowers need to attract pollinators to help them reproduce. Different flowers have evolved different ways to attract pollinators; some use color or odors, while others use nectar as a food reward.
27GPS: S7L4cStudents will recognize that changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of both individuals and entire species.
28Ecological Succession A change in the community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones1. Primary Succession – occurs in an area where there are no existing communities and for some reason (s) a new community of organisms move into the area
29Ecological Succession A change in the community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones2. Secondary Succession – occurs in an area where an existing community is partially damaged
30Ecological Succession A change in the community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones3. Climax Community – a community that is stable and has a greatdiversity of organisms
31Guided Notes ReviewDifferentiate between autotrophs and heterotrophs. Identify the different types of heterotrophs.Differentiate between a food chain and a food web. Describe how energy travels through a food chain/food web.Describe the structure and organization of an ecological pyramid.Identify and describe the 3 symbiotic relationships.