Presentation on theme: "Ecology Movement of energy. Know the 3 Es Ecology = the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment. Ecosystem = all the living."— Presentation transcript:
Ecology Movement of energy
Know the 3 Es Ecology = the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment. Ecosystem = all the living and nonliving components of an environment and how they interact. Environment = an organisms immediate surroundings consisting both living and nonliving things.
Community = interacting organisms in an environment. Habitat = actual place (location) where an organism lives in an ecosystem. Niche = specific way of living for each organism. NO TWO SPECIES HAVE THE SAME NICHE!!! A niche includes habitat, environment, ecosystem, diet, defenses, etc..
Types of Organisms: Producers = Autotrophs Make their own food Photosynthesis Consumers = Heterotrophs Get energy by eating other organisms...can not make own food. They eat other consumers or producers.
Herbivores = eat producers Carnivores = eat consumers Omnivores = eat consumers and producers Decomposers = cause decay. Break down complex molecules into simpler molecules, recycle nutrients (ex. Bacteria / Fungi)
Predator = an organism that will hunt, catch, and eat other organisms. Ex) Wolf So is a predator a producer or consumer?? Prey = the organism that is being hunted, caught, and eaten!!! Ex) Rabbit
Population = # of organism of the SAME species, living within a certain area at a particular time. Populations cant grow forever and forever…. Limiting Factor = any factor that keeps a population from growing indefinitely/forever. Ex) predators, death, disease, lack of food/water/shelter/land (resources)
Carrying capacity – the maximum number/amount of organisms a population can support. Every population has a carrying capacity.
Energy Flow To eat is to obtain energy from breaking down molecules Energy flows from the sun to producers to consumers Trophic level – position in the sequence of energy transfers
Energy Flow in Ecosystems 1 st Trophic Level plants and other organisms that make their own food i.e., producers aka autotrophs
Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 nd Trophic Level Eat the 1st trophic level consumers, herbivores
Energy Flow in Ecosystems 3 rd Trophic Level Eat the 2nd trophic level organisms that eat herbivores consumers, carnivores
This diagram has 4 trophic levels
Fewer organisms at higher trophic levels than at lower trophic levels (pyramidal shape). An ecosystem can hold 5 trophic levels at the most because the energy decreases as you move up the levels.
What do you think the ultimate source for energy is for all trophic levels??
Food Chain A single pathway of feeding relationships Grass eaten by mouse which is eaten by a snake which is eaten by a hawk
Food Web More complex than a food chain Shows some (or many) feeding relationships in an ecosystem
Energy Transfers Plants absorb energy from the sun to make sugar/glucose Each trophic level loses energy as you move up. 10% Rule = Loss of energy as you move up the food pyramid/chain/trophic levels.
10% Rule in more detail…. Higher trophic levels contain less energy and therefore can support fewer individuals. An herbivore eats a plant and only gets 10% of the plants energy (rest of the energy is lost doing work, or as heat) A carnivore eats an herbivore and also only gets 10% of the energy in the herbivore
In food chains and food webs there is something called BIOMAGNIFICATION that can occur. Biomagnification - the increase of a pollutant as you move up trophic levels/food chains. Example: DDT chemical
So…as you move up the trophic levels or up the food chains….the pollutant INCREASES!!! BioMAGNIFICATION… get bigger!!!!