2 Know the 3 “E’s”Ecology = the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment.Ecosystem = all the living and nonliving components of an environment and how they interact.Environment = an organisms immediate surroundings consisting both living and nonliving things.
3 Community = interacting organisms in an environment. Habitat = actual place (location) where an organism lives in an ecosystem.Niche = specific way of living for each organism . NO TWO SPECIES HAVE THE SAME NICHE!!!A niche includes habitat, environment, ecosystem, diet, defenses, etc..
4 Types of Organisms: Producers = Autotrophs Consumers = Heterotrophs Make their own foodPhotosynthesisConsumers = HeterotrophsGet energy by eating other organisms...can not make own food.They eat other consumers or producers.
5 Herbivores = eat producers Carnivores = eat consumersOmnivores = eat consumers and producersDecomposers = cause decay. Break down complex molecules into simpler molecules, recycle nutrients (ex. Bacteria / Fungi)
6 So is a predator a producer or consumer?? Predator = an organism that will hunt, catch, and eat other organisms.Ex) WolfSo is a predator a producer or consumer??Prey = the organism that is being hunted, caught, and eaten!!!Ex) Rabbit
9 Populations can’t grow forever and forever…. Population = # of organism of the SAME species, living within a certain area at a particular time.Populations can’t grow forever and forever….Limiting Factor = any factor that keeps a population from growing indefinitely/forever.Ex) predators, death, disease, lack of food/water/shelter/land (resources)
10 Carrying capacity – the maximum number/amount of organisms a population can support. Every population has a “carrying capacity”.
24 Plants absorb energy from the sun to make sugar/glucose Energy TransfersPlants absorb energy from the sun to make sugar/glucoseEach trophic level loses energy as you move up.10% Rule = Loss of energy as you move up the food pyramid/chain/trophic levels.
25 10% Rule in more detail….Higher trophic levels contain less energy and therefore can support fewer individuals.An herbivore eats a plant and only gets 10% of the plant’s energy (rest of the energy is lost doing work, or as heat)A carnivore eats an herbivore and also only gets 10% of the energy in the herbivore
26 In food chains and food webs there is something called BIOMAGNIFICATION that can occur. Biomagnification - the increase of a pollutant as you move up trophic levels/food chains. Example: DDT chemical