5 Interactions and Interdependence EcologyThe study of interactions and relationships between organisms and their environment.
6 Interactions and Interdependence What non-living things in their environment do organisms interact with?Sunlight, air, water, soil, rocksIn what ways are these nonliving things essential to organisms?Photosynthesis, Oxygen in air, bacteria live in soil, mosses on rocks, etc.
7 BiosphereContains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land, water, and air (atmosphere)
15 Consumers Heterotrophs Consumers that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply.Indirect use of sun’s energy
16 Consumers -- Heterotrophs Herbivores — eat plants (rabbit)Carnivores — eat other animalsOmnivores — eat both plants and animalsDetritivores — feed on plant and animal remains called detritus.Decomposers — break down organic matter (bacteria and fungi).
17 Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction:Sunlight Producers Consumers
18 Energy Transformations Only 10% of the energy at each trophic level is passed on to the next:Primary – 1stSecondary – 2ndTertiary – 3rdQuaternary – 4thThe other 90% is lost as heat when consumers burn food during cellular respiration (this is good because it helps us to maintain our body temperature!)
20 Food ChainA series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten; travels in one direction.Always begins with producers who store energy in the chemical bonds of the foods they make.Stored energy is passed on to consumers when they eat producers or other consumers.
26 Ecological PyramidsA diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain.Energy PyramidBiomass PyramidPyramid of Numbers
27 Ecological Pyramids Energy Pyramid Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Organisms use about 10 percent of this energy for life processes. The rest is lost as heat.Pyramid of NumbersShows the relative number ofIndividual organisms at eachtrophic level.Biomass PyramidRepresents the amount ofliving organic matter at each trophic level. Typically, thegreatest biomass is at thebase of the pyramid.
28 Recycling in the Biosphere Matter and energy move differently through the ecosystem.Energy flows one way – some is lost as heat, only 10% of energy is used directly by organisms at each trophic levelMatter is RECYCLED through the ecosystemLaw of Conservation of MatterMatter can be transformed
30 Factors in an Ecosystem Biotic factors: living organisms with which an organism might interact.Ex: insects, plants, etc.Abiotic Factors: physical or nonliving factors with which an organism might interact.Ex: sunlight, wind, soil, etc.
33 Community Interactions Competition occurs when organisms attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place and at the same time.Resource = any necessity of lifeExamples: water, nutrients, light, food, space
34 Community Interactions Predation occurs when one organism captures & feeds on another organismEx: lions hunt deer
35 Community Interactions Symbiosis: 3 main typesMutualism = both organisms benefit from the relationshipCommensalism = one organism benefits while the other organism is neither helped nor harmedParasitism = one organism benefits at the expense of the other organism
40 Ecological Succession Predictable changes that occur in a community over timePrimary succession: occurs on surfaces where no soil existsExamples: after a volcanic explosion where the land is covered with lava or ashes or on bare rock exposed by glacier meltPioneer species: first species to populate the area (often lichens)
44 Population Growth Affected by 3 factors: # of births # of deaths # of organisms arriving or leaving: Immigration and emigration
45 Exponential GrowthExponential growth occurs when organisms in a population reproduce at a constant rateTends to happen when resources are unlimitedExample – bacteria2 split to become 44 split to become 88 split to become 16 and so it grows on & on