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Ecology. Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between different kinds of living things and their environment. Ecology is the study of interactions.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology. Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between different kinds of living things and their environment. Ecology is the study of interactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology

2 Ecology Ecology is the study of interactions between different kinds of living things and their environment. Ecology is the study of interactions between different kinds of living things and their environment.

3 Why is Ecology Important?

4 Why care about ecology? Ecological research provides us with the necessary info. to resolve many of the environmental problems that surround us. Ecological research provides us with the necessary info. to resolve many of the environmental problems that surround us.

5 We are dependent upon the worlds ecosystems, therefore, we must learn how to keep the environment safe for all living organisms. We are dependent upon the worlds ecosystems, therefore, we must learn how to keep the environment safe for all living organisms.

6 Biosphere The portion of Earth that supports life The portion of Earth that supports life Several kilometers below oceans surface and several kilometers into the atmosphere Several kilometers below oceans surface and several kilometers into the atmosphere

7 Biotic Factors Living things with which an organism interacts Living things with which an organism interacts Animals, plants, fungi, & microorganisms Animals, plants, fungi, & microorganisms

8 Abiotic Factors Nonliving factors in an organisms environment Nonliving factors in an organisms environment Temperature, rainfall, sunlight Temperature, rainfall, sunlight Air or water currents Air or water currents Type & acidity of soil Type & acidity of soil Availability of nutrients Availability of nutrients

9 Population A group of a single species that lives in a given area at the same time A group of a single species that lives in a given area at the same time Ex: school of fish Ex: school of fish Compete for same resources Compete for same resources

10 Biological Community A group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time A group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic area at the same time

11 Ecosystem A biological community AND all of the abiotic factors that affect it A biological community AND all of the abiotic factors that affect it.

12 Biome A large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities A large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities Well cover more in Ch. 3

13 Habitat An area where an organism lives. An area where an organism lives. Ex: Tree or a grove of trees Ex: Tree or a grove of trees

14 Niche The role or position that an organisms has in its environment The role or position that an organisms has in its environment How the organism meets its needs for food, shelter and reproduction. How the organism meets its needs for food, shelter and reproduction.

15 Predation One organism consuming another organism for food One organism consuming another organism for food Predator eats the prey Predator eats the prey Ex: Cougar eats a rabbit Ex: Cougar eats a rabbit

16 Symbiotic Relationships Symbiosis - Close relationship that exists when two or more species live together Symbiosis - Close relationship that exists when two or more species live together Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism

17 Mutualism Both organisms benefit Both organisms benefit Ex: Lichens - between fungi and algae Ex: Lichens - between fungi and algae –Algae provides food for fungi and fungi provide a habitat for the algae

18 Commensalism One organism benefits, the other is neither helped nor harmed One organism benefits, the other is neither helped nor harmed Ex: Clownfish and sea anemones Ex: Clownfish and sea anemones – sea anemones protect & provide food for the clownfish – clownfish neither benefits nor harms the sea anemones

19 Parasitism One organism benefits at the expense of another One organism benefits at the expense of another Ex: Dogs & heartworms, ticks, fleas, tapeworms Ex: Dogs & heartworms, ticks, fleas, tapeworms Do not always kill the host - harm it Do not always kill the host - harm it

20 Energy in an Ecosystem Plants are primary producers Plants are primary producers Producers are also called autotrophs (self-feeding) Producers are also called autotrophs (self-feeding) –Produces its own food by collecting energy from sunlight or inorganic substances

21 Consumers Consumers cannot collect energy directly from the sun Consumers cannot collect energy directly from the sun Consumers must eat other organisms in order to obtain energy Consumers must eat other organisms in order to obtain energy Animals and bacteria are consumers Animals and bacteria are consumers Animals are also called heterotrophic because they must feed on other organisms to obtain energy Animals are also called heterotrophic because they must feed on other organisms to obtain energy

22 Heterotrophs Must consume other organisms to get its energy Must consume other organisms to get its energy –Herbivores –Carnivores –Omnivores –Parasites –Decomposers –Detritivores

23 Herbivores Herbivores obtain energy by eating autotrophs (plants) Herbivores obtain energy by eating autotrophs (plants) = Primary (1 o ) consumers = Primary (1 o ) consumers

24 Carnivores Carnivores obtain energy by eating other animals Carnivores obtain energy by eating other animals Secondary (2 o ) or Tertiary (3 o ) consumers Secondary (2 o ) or Tertiary (3 o ) consumers – heterotrophs that prey on other heterotrophs

25 Omnivores Omnivores are animals that eat both plants and animals Omnivores are animals that eat both plants and animals

26 Detritivores Eats fragments of dead matter in an ecosystem, and returns nutrients to the environment Eats fragments of dead matter in an ecosystem, and returns nutrients to the environment Ex: worms, aquatic insects on stream bottoms Ex: worms, aquatic insects on stream bottoms

27 Decomposers Decomposers break down dead organisms by releasing digestive enzymes Decomposers break down dead organisms by releasing digestive enzymes Ex: Fungi & bacteria Ex: Fungi & bacteria

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29 Energy Flow The source of energy (for most ecosystems) is the sun The source of energy (for most ecosystems) is the sun Energy and nutrients are passed from organism to organism through the food chain Energy and nutrients are passed from organism to organism through the food chain

30 Ultimately, energy will be LOST as HEAT Ultimately, energy will be LOST as HEAT –It does not continuously cycle –Black arrows Nutrients, however, continuously CYCLE through food webs and through the geological world. Nutrients, however, continuously CYCLE through food webs and through the geological world. –White arrows

31 Trophic Levels Feeding level in the flow of food energy from producers to the highest level of consumers Feeding level in the flow of food energy from producers to the highest level of consumers –Primary (1 o ), secondary (2 o ) & tertiary (3 o ) consumers See ecological pyramids on p. 44 See ecological pyramids on p. 44

32 Only 10% of the energy in one trophic level is passed on to the next level Only 10% of the energy in one trophic level is passed on to the next level –The rest is used by the organism or lost as heat

33 BIOMASS Biomass - combined mass of all the organisms in that trophic level Biomass - combined mass of all the organisms in that trophic level As the trophic level increases, biomass decreases As the trophic level increases, biomass decreases 1. not everything in the lower levels gets eaten 2. not everything that is eaten is digested 3. energy is always being lost as heat

34 Food Chain A simple, straight-line sequence of organisms consuming other organisms A simple, straight-line sequence of organisms consuming other organisms Grass grasshopper mouse hawk Grass grasshopper mouse hawk

35 Food Web Complex feeding relationships that result from interconnecting food chains Complex feeding relationships that result from interconnecting food chains See p.43 See p.43

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37 Review What factors are included in an ecosystem that are not included in a community? What factors are included in an ecosystem that are not included in a community? Describe how ecosystems and biomes differ. Describe how ecosystems and biomes differ. How is a habitat different from a niche? Example? How is a habitat different from a niche? Example? Compare/contrast food chains and food webs. Compare/contrast food chains and food webs.


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