Presentation on theme: "Movement of Energy Through an Ecosystem: Producers and Consumers PRODUCERS (autotrophs) –plants, bacteria and algae are the first to capture the energy."— Presentation transcript:
Movement of Energy Through an Ecosystem: Producers and Consumers PRODUCERS (autotrophs) –plants, bacteria and algae are the first to capture the energy from the SUN. Some autotrophs can produce energy in the absence of sunlight, these organisms (many are bacteria) use chemicals to produce energy in a process known as CHEMOSYNTHESIS CONSUMERS (heterotrophs) - All other organisms in an ecosystem that consume plants or other organisms to obtain energy are called
Types of consumers 1.Herbivores – obtain energy from eating plants 2.Carnivores- eat other animals 3. Omnivores – eat both
4.Detrivores – feed on plant remains and other dead matter. Ex. Mites, earthworms, snails and crabs 5. Decomposers – break down organic matter. Ex. Bacteria and Fungi
The Movement of Energy Through Ecosystems: Food Chains The path of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem is called a FOOD CHAIN. Shows simple straight paths of energy. Ex. Grassland Food chain
The Movement of Energy Through Ecosystems: Trophic Levels in a Food Chain 1 st level always starts with a producer. (Plant) 2 nd level consists of herbivores. Called primary consumers. 3 rd level consists of carnivores or omnivores Called secondary consumers. 4 th level tertiary or third order consumers- top carnivores in an ecosystem.
The Movement of Energy Through Ecosystems: Food Webs In most ecosystems energy does not follow simple straight paths like those shown in a food chain. FOOD WEB - used to show many food chains together, makes more sense
Ecological Pyramids Diagram that shows relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in food chain or web. 3 types: Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Pyramid of Numbers
Energy Pyramid At each trophic level energy is lost as heat or the organisms biological processes (i.e. respiration, movement, etc.) Only about 10% of the energy available within a trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level. Loss of energy limits the amount of trophic levels an ecosystem can support. Called the Rule of 10 Anyone remember the law of the conservation of energy you learned in IPC?
The Movement of Energy Through Ecosystems: Loss of Energy in a Food Chain This loss of energy is known as the 10% Rule or Octet rule. Ex. A plant receives 9,000kcal of energy from the sun. How much energy does the tertiary consumer receive? 9000 900 90 9
What shapes an Ecosystem? Abiotic and Biotic Factors ABIOTIC FACTORS – physical, NONLIVING parts of a habitat. Ex. Soil, water, weather, temperature. ■ BIOTIC FACTORS – all LIVING parts in a habitat. Together these factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of an ecosystem.
Community Interactions 1.Competition – occurs when different species try to use the same ecological resources at the same place and same time. Direct competition will result in a winner and loser – the loser failing to survive.
2.Predation – one organism captures and feeds on another organism. PREDATOR – does the killing PREY – organism that is killed
3.Symbiosis – relationship in which 2 species live closely together – literally means “living together” 3 types 1. Mutualism 2. Commensalism 3. Parasitism
1. Mutualism Relationship where BOTH participating species BENEFIT. They cannot live without each other. Ex. Honeypot ants and aphids