Presentation on theme: "PI5501 European Security Strategic Studies. From where does the European security infrastructure arise? Why has it settled in this way? What lasting impact."— Presentation transcript:
From where does the European security infrastructure arise? Why has it settled in this way? What lasting impact has the Cold War had on European Security? Is Europe a security community or complex?
Second World War in Europe US and USSR Allies in the Second World War UK, US, USSR and French The end of the Second World War and the beginning of the Cold War Germany Berlin Airlift US and Hiroshima
The new security dilemma: West vs. East The impact of nuclear weapons The West: From Alliance to Organization The East: From Alliance to Pact
Geopolitical Accommodation VE-Day 1945 Iron Curtain 1946 Germany foreign policy towards the East French position
Alternatives to the bipolar split in Europe Finland, Sweden Ireland Spain Yugoslavia Albania
The Ideological Conflict The fight over Poland The fight over Germany The fight over Europe
The Eastern Response Maintain the post-war status quo in Europe Spread the revolution elsewhere Origins of the status quo in Europe Security dilemma The origins of the revolution Marxism, Leninism and Stalinism
The Western Response Over turn the post-war status quo in Europe Contain the revolution elsewhere Origin of democratic peace Democratic peace theory and authoritarian regimes Origin of containment Kennan, X and stopping the red threat
The Nuclear Environment American strike capabilities from 1954 Russian first test – 1949 Sputnik – 1957 UK first test – 1952 French first test – 1954
Western Nuclear Strategies Trip wire vs plate glass defence Local vs rolling strike Massive retaliation vs flexible response
US Nuclear Weapons in Europe 1954- 2007 Federation of American Scientists
US Nuclear Weapons locations in Europe Natural Resources Defence Council
Changes in European Security West German Elections – 1967 Grand coalition (Brandt FM) Ostpolitik I Czechoslovakia 1967 West German Elections – 1969 SDU and FDP (Brandt Chancellor) Ostpolitik II Moscow (Poland, East Germany)
The rise of Détente Ostpolitik West German – Soviet non-aggression treaty Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties (SALT) – 1969 Soviets and the status quo (the continuation of Potsdam) Sino-Soviet split US and Vietnam High point: the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
The fall of Détente Soviet invasion of Afghanistan – 1979 Iranian Revolution – 1979 Election of Reagan – 1980 Abandoned SALT II talks Did Détente last longer in Europe?
Death of Brezhnev (1982) Rise of Gorbachev (1985) Soviet economy declining The end of the Brezhnev Doctrine – Poland and the Fall of the Berlin Wall Soviet collapse – 1991
Increased US military spending under Carter and Reagan The advent of the first Gulf War – 1990 NATO London Declaration – 1990
NATO CSCE cum OSCE START I (SALT II) CFE Treaty Open Skies Treaty ANew Cold War?