2 Why is it called the Cold War? There were no weapons fired at each other!Major Principles:Democracy vs. Communism (Alliances)New Foreign PoliciesArms buildingChanges in society: education, fear, technology, sports, and the race to spaceConflict and RevolutionNationalism and Independence
3 Causes of the Cold WarU.S. and the Soviet Union emerge as super powers with different government ideologies (Democracy vs. Communism)Different Economic Goals!!World trade (Capitalism) vs. Isolation (Preserve Socialism and Resources)
4 Tension Increases!Soviet Expansion: Reshaping of post war borders (Ex: Poland)Disputes over Post War GermanyBerlin Split into four sectionsSoviets blocked Eastern Berlin from the contact w/ the Allies to cut off its food and suppliesBerlin Airlift ( )- Supplies dropped to help starving civilians in West BerlinBerlin Wall: Constructed by Soviets to separate east and west (Becomes a symbol of the Cold War!!!)
7 Communist Expansion Continues Soviets begin to take over nearby countries (EX: Poland, Hungary, and Romania that became known as satellites)Satellites created a buffer zone from the west that became known as “the Iron Curtain”
8 The U.S. Reacts!!! U.S Foreign Policy Truman Doctrine: Policy of containment- keep it where it is, don’t let it spread!Marshall Plan: Aid to Western European countries to rebuildUS wants to make sure it has allies in the “fight” against communism
9 Potsdam ConferenceNew President Harry Truman met with Stalin and Churchill over the disagreementsStalin continued to refuse to allow free elections in E. Germany and the countries of his iron curtainStalin declares that communism and capitalism could not exist in the same world!!!!
10 Alliances FormN.A.T.O. : Western Democracies (if one is attacked all must defend)Warsaw Pact: Communist Eastern EuropeNonalignment : Countries chose not to take sides during cold war, India and China
13 Superpower RivalryCompetition for Military, Technological, and Cultural superiorityNuclear arms build up (increases fear and tension)The race to outer space (Sputnik and Man on the Moon)Education (Science)ComputersSports (hockey)Will last until the Soviet Union breaks up in 1991
14 Revolutions and Conflicts Communist Revolution in China (1949)Korean War ( )Cuban Revolution (1959)Cuban Missile Crisis (1963)Vietnam War ( )
15 “The Thaw”Missile Ban Treaties: Both sides agree to destroy groups of missilesMikhail Gorbachev: Creates new democratic policies that open the door for expression and change (Glasnost and Perestroika)Nationalism spreads in satellite states: Eventually Gain IndependenceFall of the Berlin Wall (1989): Symbolizes the end of the Cold War!!!!
17 Political Cartoon Activity!!! Write a few sentences about how your cartoon deals with the Cold WarHints:Does it discuss a policy we talked about?A theme of the Cold War?A Race between the Superpowers?Be prepared to explain your cartoon!
24 Which statement best describes most Eastern European countries immediately after World War II? They 1. adopted democratic reforms in their political systems 2. became satellite states of the Soviet Union 3.became dependent on aid provided by the Marshall Plan 4.emerged as world economic powersStalin used economic and militaristic means to force pro-communists governments on Eastern European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland. These nations became known as Soviet satellite states.
25 One reason the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact was to 1. ease the transition to democracy 2. help institute capitalism in Eastern Europe 3. limit the threat of invasion from Western Europe 4. challenge the economic successes of the Common MarketThe Warsaw Pact was formed by the Soviet Union and seven of its satellite states as a response to NATO. The Warsaw Pact was a defensive military alliance.
26 During the Cold War Era ( ), the United States and the Soviet Union were reluctant to become involved in direct military conflict mainly because of1. the peacekeeping role of the United Nations 2. pressure from nonaligned nations 3. the potential for global nuclear destruction 4. increased tensions in the Middle EastBoth superpowers had nuclear capabilities and feared a direct conflict between the two could lead to a nuclear war.
27 In the Soviet Union, a negative aspect of the Cold War Era was the 1. attempt to preserve democratic ideals 2. development of peaceful uses for modern technology 3. development of effective means of international cooperation 4. high cost of maintaining the arms raceThe Soviet Union devoted a majority of their economy to maintaining a balance of power with the U.S at the expense of their citizens.
28 Democracy (U.S) vs. Communism (U.S.S.R) United States involvement in the Vietnam War and the Soviet Union’s involvement in Afghanistan were motivated mainly by a desire to1. exploit the mineral resources of the regions 2. support governments that would remain strong allies 3. stop the expansion of Japan into the Middle East 4. establish independent nation-states in the regionsDemocracy (U.S) vs. Communism (U.S.S.R)
29 A major development in relations between the Soviet Union and the United States occurred in the late 1980’s when the two nations agreed to1. purchase all their oil from Mexico 2. withdraw from the United Nations 3. eliminate a group of nuclear missiles 4. ban arms sales to developing nationsBoth sides worked together throughout the 1970s and 1980s to reduce the number of nuclear weapons each possessed.
30 Which statement best describes the political situation in Eastern Europe during the 1980’s? 1. nationalism has often been a strong force for change 2. communist governments have gained power through democratic elections 3. ethnic rivalries have been eliminated throughout the region 4. United States influence has been used to keep communist governments in powerSoviet Satellites having nationalistic feelings that eventually led to their independence from the Soviet Union.
31 · Blockade of Berlin · Operation of the Berlin Airlift · Organization of the Warsaw Pact · Construction of the Berlin Wall These events of the Cold War are examples of1. efforts to prevent military conflict between the superpowers 2. situations that increased tensions between communist and democratic nations in Europe 3. attempts to weaken the Soviet Union’s control of its Eastern European allies 4. policies of peaceful coexistence and détente
32 Which was a major reason for the success of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe after World War II? 1. Eastern Europeans accepted the doctrine of Pan-Slavism 2. the democracies of Western Europe needed greater security 3. the Soviet Union had military forces in Eastern Europe as a result of World War II 4. Western Europeans feared that Nazism would be rekindled in Eastern Europe