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Chapter Three—The Constitution

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1 Chapter Three—The Constitution
Section One--The Road to the Constitution

2 Why was a new framework of government necessary?
The Articles of Confederation was causing too many problems Nation in extreme debt Congress could not tax Congress could not enforce laws States taxed excessively Trade between states and other nations was nearly impossible to accomplish

3 What kind of people were involved in writing the Constitution?
White males Educated Wealthier Experience working in government Military heroes Examples—George Washington, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin

4 Chapter Three—The Constitution
Section Two—Creating and Ratifying the Constitution

5 What problems did the “framers” of the Constitution face DURING the Constitutional Convention?
Fear of outside pressure and undue influence from constituents Concern over voting procedures Arguments over two plans of government (Virginia Plan v. New Jersey Plan)

6 Virginia Plan Bicameral Legislature Both houses will base representation on population Will have a president, legislature, and court system—Three Branches of Government!

7 New Jersey Plan Unicameral Legislature Representation in legislature will be the same for all states

8 The Great Compromise (AKA Connecticut Plan)
Bicameral legislature Representation in one house (the House of Representatives) will be determined by population (representative elected by the people) Representation in the other house (the Senate) will be the same for each state (two per state, elected by the state legislature) THIS SLIDE IS VERY IMPORTANT!!!!!

9 Problems DURING… Commerce Compromise
Fixing problems with commerce and trade States could not tax exports or imports States could not deal individually with other nations Congress was allowed to regulate trade between states; could not tax interstate trade Standardized currency and weights and measured

10 Slavery Compromises Slave Trade “Fugitive slave clause” Three-Fifths Compromise

11 How do will we elect our president?
Elected by Congress?? Elected by the people?? Compromise: The Electoral College

12 Federalists fought against Anti-Federalists
What problems did the “framers” of the Constitution face AFTER the Constitutional Convention? Anti-Federalists disapproved Federalists fought against Anti-Federalists

13 Chapter Three—The Constitution
Section One—The Road to the Constitution

14 What is the preamble to the Constitution?
Introductory paragraph with six goals Make a “more perfect union” Establish justice Ensure domestic tranquility Provide for the common defense Promote the general welfare Secure liberty for all future generations

15 What is the purpose of Article I
What is the purpose of Article I? Powers and responsibilities of Congress Borrow money Regulate trade Control immigration Coin money Establish post offices Create federal courts Declare war Finance the military Make laws necessary to to carrying out their powers (necessary and proper clause)

16 What is the purpose of Article II? Powers of the President
Commander in Chief Make treaties Grant pardons and reprieves Appoint federal judges Appoint other high officers in government

17 What is the purpose of Article III? The Powers of the Judicial Branch
Jurisdiction over federal crimes and federal civil cases Can overturn any laws that are made that violate the constitution (***Judicial Review***)

18 Extra Credit Quiz The Preamble and the Constitution
List THREE GOALS of the Preamble List THREE Powers of Congress List THREE Powers of the President What is the vocabulary word that means “the ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law to be unconstitutional

19 Purpose of Article IV? Describes the relations between the states “Full faith and credit clause” How new states are admitted All states must have a republican form of government Issues of extradition Purpose of Article V? Describes how the Constitution can be amended Amendments must be proposed by 2/3 of Congress Amendments must be ratified by ¾ of the states

20 How can the Constitution be amended?

21 What is the purpose of Article VI?
Contains the “Supremacy Clause” What is the purpose of Article VII? Describes process for ratification—9 of the original 13 states must approve for the Constitution to be official

22 How is the Constitution interpreted?
Necessary and Proper Clause Through different people interpreting the Constitution over time

23 Underlying Principles of the Constitution Popular Sovereignty (Voting)
Section Four Underlying Principles of the Constitution Popular Sovereignty (Voting) Separation of Powers (Checks and Balances)—prevents abuses of power Checks and Balances.doc

24 Underlying Principles of the Constitution
Section Four Underlying Principles of the Constitution 3. Federalism—Cooperation between federal, state, and local governments. (Enumerated,Concurrent, Reserved Powers) 4. Limited Government(Bill of Rights)

25 Federalism—Types of Powers
Enumerated Powers (National Powers) Regulate trade with other nations and among states Conduct foreign affairs Raise and support the military Establish a postal system Govern US territories Admit two states Regular immigration Concurrent Powers (Shared Powers) Taxation Pass laws Establish courts Enforce the laws Borrow money Provide for the welfare of citizens Reserved Powers (State’s Powers) Driving laws Marriage and divorce laws Establish local governments Manage elections Oversee public schools Regulate trade within the state

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