Presentation on theme: "The Structure of the US Constitution Did you know? There are 4,440 words in the U.S. Constitution. It is the oldest and shortest written Constitution of."— Presentation transcript:
The Structure of the US Constitution Did you know? There are 4,440 words in the U.S. Constitution. It is the oldest and shortest written Constitution of any major government in the world. Why do you think it is a model for other Constitutions in the world? Did you know? There are 4,440 words in the U.S. Constitution. It is the oldest and shortest written Constitution of any major government in the world. Why do you think it is a model for other Constitutions in the world? “Life is good. Learn about YOUR Constitution today so life can be better enjoyed.” “But just as they did in Philadelphia when they were writing the constitution, sooner or later, you've got to compromise. You've got to start making the compromises that arrive at a consensus and move the country forward.”-Colin Powell JOURNAL #1
Structure of the US Constitution 3 main parts: 1. Preamble-intro/purpose 2. 7 Articles-describes powers and duties of the gov’t Lets Eat Jellybeans So All Students Rock 3.27 Amendments (changes)
Preamble - An Introduction: gives the purposes and goals of the new government YOUTUBE…… - We, the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common Defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Posterity=after= generations to come Read the preamble and identify and briefly explain the 6 goals of our government according to this document.
Preamble - An Introduction: gives the purposes and goals of the new government YOUTUBE…… - We, the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common Defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Posterity=after= generations to come Identify the 6 goals of the Constitution 1.Form a more perfect union=together/United 2.Establish Justice=fairness in govt/rights 3.Insure Domestic Tranquility = peace at home 4.Provide for the common defense 5.Promote the general welfare=common good 6.Secure the blessings of liberty=freedom
Article I - Describes the Congress and its powers (make laws) -Divides Congress into two Houses: the Senate & the House of Representatives -Sets qualification and terms of members -Describes the law making process -Specifically denies certain powers to Congress -Delegates certain powers to Congress Ex.: taxation, borrow money, regulate commerce, coin money, declare war, establish military, do anything “necessary and proper” L =1 123, LEJ
Article II - Describes the Executive Branch -Terms and Qualifications of the President -Electoral method described (later amended – 12 th Amendment) - The Executive is the commander in chief. -Powers include: to make treaties, appoint officials, execute (carry out) the laws of the United States -Impeachment process – The Executive can be removed from Office if convicted of treason, bribery, or other high Crimes & Misdemeanors. E=2 123, LEJ
ARTICLE III Describes the Judicial Branch who interpret the law -Terms and qualification of judges -Jurisdiction of Federal Courts -Right to Trial by Jury in Federal Cases -Crime of Treason is defined J=3 LEJ, 123 When interpreting a law, the Supreme Court can exercise its right of judicial review (to declare a law unconstitutional). “Marbury v. Madison” established this power which made the Judicial branch equal in power to the other 2 branches. The Supreme Court can exercise this power only if a case is presented to them.
Article IV - Describes the relationship of states to one another and the central government -Full Faith and Credit clause describes the legal relationship between states -Extradition process described; the process of returning fugitives -Addition of new states and territories -Guarantee of Federal protection from invaders Means that each state will accept the decisions of civil courts in other states; EX: the acceptance of a state’s official records (marriage certificates, wills, contracts, property deeds) by other states.
ARTICLE V Describes the amendment process -sets up the two methods of proposing an amendment 1. by Congress (only method ever used) 2. by state conventions
THINK!!! How is the amendment process governed by majority rule? An amendment can only be proposed by a majority of members of Congress or a majority of the states. A majority of the states must ratify an amendment for it to become part of the Constitution!
Amendments can be repealed! Repeal means to cancel! How can an amendment be repealed? By approving another amendment! EX: The 18 th Amendment (prohibition) was repealed by the 21 st Amendment. ADD TO THE BACK OF PAGE 14
Article VI - Describes the supremacy of the Constitution and the national government -Statement that the Constitution is the Supreme Law of the nation (Supremacy Clause) Federal law takes precedence over state laws. -requirement of an oath of office in all State and Federal positions to support the Constitution
Article VII - Describes the process of ratification of the Constitution Sets up the two methods of ratifying a new amendment: 1. State Conventions 2. State Legislatures
ISSUE: REPRESENTATION “MADISON’S or the VIRGINIA PLAN” - James Madison – father of the Constitution -3 branches -bicameral Congress = 2 house legislature: House of Representatives/Senate -representation in the House – based on population THE US CONSTITUTION IS BASED ON COMPROMISE.
NEW JERSEY PLAN - small state plan -equal voting in the Senate (2 per state) -Promoted state’s rights
COMPROMISE RESULTS - the Great Compromise also called the Connecticut Compromise House proportional representation Senate equal representation -3/5 Compromise – to balance representation between the North & the South -Slave Trade Compromise – not to mention slavery in the Constitution in exchange for ending the slave trade in 1808 - Tariff: The National government can tax imports but not exports.
Principles (Ideas) upon which our government is based
Limited Government - Is the belief that a gov’ts powers should be limited, an idea we got from the Magna Carta that limited the power of the British monarch -EX: the rule of law -protects against abusive gov’t -government -majority rule is not always acceptable -prevents abuse by factions -Constitution lists powers not given to the government and rights that are to be guaranteed. Majority rule is the principle that in a disagreement, everyone will accept the decision of the majority Federalism is an example of how we have a limited government. How so?
system designed to have the separate parts of government watch over each other -Executive -Legislative -Judicial Checks and Balances
Partners: Create 3 political cartoons all based on the principle of checks & balances: 1.One cartoon showing how Legislative branch checks the Executive and Judicial branches. 2.One cartoon showing how the Executive branch checks the Legislative and Judicial branches. 3.One cartoon showing how the Judicial Branch “checks the Legislative and Executive branches.