Presentation on theme: " Eastern Europe and Muslim Civilizations. Islam is founded Founded by Muhammad, who wrote down word of God in holy book called Quran Followers of."— Presentation transcript:
Islam is founded Founded by Muhammad, who wrote down word of God in holy book called Quran Followers of Islam are called Muslims. Muhammad spread religion across Middle East, widely followed still in that region.
Basic Beliefs of Islam Monotheistic: One God Five Pillars or duties to follow, including a trip to Mecca Mecca is important because it is where Muhammad was born and where Quran was written. Beliefs of Islam are applied to everyday lives of people, becomes a way of life.
Sunnis v. Shiites Many Muslims debated over who should lead Islam after Muhammad’s death. Sunnis: Thought that Abu Bakr was rightful leader of Islam, majority of Muslims are Sunnis Shiites: Thought all leaders of religion should be able to trace ancestry to Muhammad. Most common in Iran
Comparing Christianity and Islam Both groups share similar beliefs, such as the Ten Commandments (Jews too). Muslims believe Jesus was an important prophet but not the promised Savior. Christians believe Jesus was the Savior, and he will come again on Judgment Day.
Spread of Islam Caliph: successor to Muhammad and leader of Sunni Muslims First caliph is Abu Bakr, launches campaign to spread Islam. Key to success: strong belief in Islam by armies and belief that those who die in battle are rewarded in Paradise.
Umayyad Dynasty First major Muslim dynasty Establish many of the Muslim traditions used today. Establish Arabic as main language, develop own currency for empire, and built large mosques still used today.
Abbasid Dynasty Replaced Umayyad dynasty and move capital to Baghdad, Iraq. Focus on learning, developing distinct Muslim culture. Ruled during split between Sunnis and Shiites. Slowly declined until Mongols take over in 13 th century.
Trade networks spread Islam Muslim traders set up posts in trading areas and teach people about Islam. Islam spreads through North Africa rapidly due to the trade networks there. Muslims contribute to study of algebra, literature, philosophy, astronomy.
Life in Muslim Society Muslim society was more accepting than that of Europe, which attracted followers. Blended culture of Persians, Africans, and Europeans. Non-Muslims were allowed to practice own religion, but many chose to convert.
Byzantine Empire Justinian I: creates code of laws to preserve and spread Roman ideas, later influences western law. Constantinople is main city, trade flourishes here. Expand on Greek and Roman studies, later contributes to Renaissance. Taken over by Ottoman Empire.
Rise of Russia Slavs and Vikings are first settlers in Russia, set up trade center in Kiev. Kiev later influenced by Byzantine empire and adopt customs, written language of each other. Mongols take over in 1200s, tolerant but fierce rulers who set standard for absolute power. Cut off Russia from the rest of the world when Europe starts to make advances.
Moscow takes over Mongols defeated and Russia ruled by Ivan the Great, unites northern Russia. Tsar: Russian ruler Grandson is Ivan the Terrible, absolute ruler
Ottoman Empire Ottomans take over part of Byzantine Empire Turkish peoples captured Constantinople, renamed it Istanbul. One of the largest empires in history, spread Islam even further.