Presentation on theme: "CLAUSES AND PHRASES. WHAT IS A PHRASE? A phrase is a collection of words that may have nouns or verbs, but it does not have a subject doing a verb. The."— Presentation transcript:
WHAT IS A PHRASE? A phrase is a collection of words that may have nouns or verbs, but it does not have a subject doing a verb. The following are examples of phrases: leaving behind the dog smashing into a fence before the first test after the devastation between ignorance and intelligence broken into thousands of pieces because of her glittering smile
PHRASES: (CANNOT STAND ALONE) In these examples, you will find nouns (dog, fence, test, devastation, ignorance, intelligence, thousands, pieces). You also have some verbs (leaving, smashing), but in no case is the noun functioning as a subject doing a predicate verb. They are all phrases.
ABSOLUTE PHRASE An absolute phrase combines a noun and a participle with any accompanying modifiers or objects.nounparticiplemodifiers
The pattern N OUN + P ARTICIPLE + O PTIONAL M ODIFIER ( S ) AND / OR O BJECT ( S ) Here are some examples: Legs quivering Legs = noun; quivering = participle. Her arms folded across her chest Arms = noun; folded = participle; her, across her chest = modifiers. Our fingers scraping the leftover frosting off the plates Fingers = noun; scraping = participle;frosting = direct object; our, the, leftover, off the plates = modifiers. ooks like this:
Rather than modifying a specific word, an absolute phrase will describe the whole clause. They are most effective in a TRIAD (3).
A sentence can also contain more than one noun phrase. -For example…. The girl with blue eyes bought a beautiful chair.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition(noun or pronoun) and may also consist of other modifiers. on a table, near a wall, in the room, at the door, under a tree …..think of the box!!!!!
- A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and mostly ends with a noun or pronoun. -Whatever prepositional phrase ends with is called object of preposition
INFINITIVE PHRASE An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive(to + simple form of verb) and modifiers or other words associated to the infinitive. An infinitive phrase always functions as an adjective, adverb or a noun in a sentence.
Examples. He likes to read books. (As noun/object) To earn money is a desire of everyone. (As noun/subject) He shouted to inform people about fire. (As adverb, modifies verb shout) He made a plan to buy a car. (As adjective, modifies noun plan)
APPOSITIVE PHRASE An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it.nounnoun phrase Ex: The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table. The insect, a large cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table. The insect, a large cockroach with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen table. The insect, a large, hairy-legged cockroach that has spied my bowl of oatmeal, is crawling across the kitchen table.
The important point to remember is that a nonessential appositive is always separated from the rest of the sentence with comma(s).comma At the beginning: A hot-tempered tennis player, Robbie charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket. In the middle: Robbie, a hot-tempered tennis player, charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket. At the end: Upset by the bad call, the crowd cheered Robbie, a hot-tempered tennis player who charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket.
Every clause has at least a subject and a verb. subjectverb
MAIN CLAUSE Every main clause will follow this pattern:main clause S UBJECT + V ERB = C OMPLETE T HOUGHT.
Here are some examples: -Lazy students whine. Students = subject; whine = verb. -Cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter. Cola = subject; spilled, splashed = verbs. -My dog loves pizza crusts. Dog = subject; loves = verb.
The important point to remember is that every sentence must have at least one main clause. Otherwise, you have a fragment, a major error.fragment
A subordinate clause will follow this pattern:subordinate clause S UBORDINATE C ONJUNCTION +S UBJECT + V ERB = I NCOMPLETE T HOUGHT.
Here are some examples: Whenever lazy students whine Whenever = subordinate conjunction; students = subject; whine = verb. As cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter As = subordinate conjunction; cola = subject; spilled, splashed = verbs. Because my dog loves pizza crusts Because = subordinate conjunction; dog= subject; loves = verb.
The important point to remember about subordinate clauses is that they can never stand alone as complete sentences. To complete the thought, you must attach each subordinate clause to a main clause.
RELATIVE CLAUSE A relative clause will begin with a relative pronoun relative clauserelative pronoun [such as who, whom, whose, which, or that] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why].relative adverb
P ATTERN LOOKS LIKE THIS : -R ELATIVE P RONOUN OR A DVERB +S UBJECT + V ERB = I NCOMPLETE T HOUGHT. -R ELATIVE P RONOUN AS S UBJECT +V ERB = I NCOMPLETE T HOUGHT.
Examples: Whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalk eraser Whom = relative pronoun; Mrs. Russell = subject; hit = verb. Where he chews and drools with great enthusiasm Where = relative adverb; he = subject;chews, drools = verbs. That had spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter That = relative pronoun; had spilled,splashed = verbs. Who loves pizza crusts Who = relative pronoun; loves = verb.
Like subordinate clauses, relative clauses cannot stand alone as complete sentences. You must connect them to main clauses to finish the thought.
NOUN CLAUSE Any clause that functions as a noun becomes a noun clause. noun clause Look at this example: You really do not want to know the ingredients in Aunt Nancy's stew. Ingredients = noun. If we replace the noun ingredients with a clause, we have a noun clause: You really do not want to know what Aunt Nancy adds to her stew. What Aunt Nancy adds to her stew= noun clause.
In the meadow, the lonely boy, a tortured soul named Jack, ran quickly toward the horizon as the sun sank slowly beneath the hills, illuminating the autumn sky, bouncing off the clouds, and fading into an ominous darkness.