2 A PHRASE is a group of words which contains neither a subject nor a verb. VerbalsA Noun is a person, place, thing, or ideaAn Adjective modifies a noun or pronounverbAn Adverb modifies a verb, adjective or another adverbA verbal phrase is a verb form that wears a mask.It functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
3 Prepositional Phrases A preposition links nouns, pronouns, and phrases toother words in the sentence. A prepositional phrase isnot a verbal phrase, since it does not look like a verb!abovebyaboutoutbeyondbetweenuntilatforamonginoversincenearafteralongbelowagainst
4 Important notes about prepositions: A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE BEGINS WITH A PREPOSITION AND ENDS WITH A NOUN OR PRONOUN CALLED THE OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION.THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE CAN NEVER BE PART OF A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE.A VERB CAN NEVER BE A PART OF A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE.The subject is who or what is doing the action.
5 Prepositional Practice Identify the prepositional phrase:The librarian took from her desk a new editionof one of the classics.2. It was placed in the display casein the corner of the library.
6 Appositive Phrases An appositive is a noun or pronoun -- often with modifiers -- set beside another noun or pronoun to explainor identify it. An appositive phrase isnot a verbal phrase, since it does not look like a verb!The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.A hot-tempered tennis player, Robbie charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket..The phrase is renaming the insect.The phrase is renaming Robbie.
7 = Functions Infinitive Phrases An infinitive phrase is a group of words made up ofan infinitive and …. An infinitive phrase isa verbal phrase, since it does look like a verb!infinitive = to + verbFunctionsDirect ObjectAdverbComplementAdjective=We intended to leave early.We must study to learn.His ambition is to fly.He lacked the strength to resist.
8 Terms to knowSubject complementThe word or clause that follows a linking verb and complements, or completes, the subject of the sentence by either renaming it or describing it.Direct objectThe noun thatreceives the actionof the verb.=
9 Infinitive PracticeIdentify the infinitive phrase and tell how it is used:To finish her shift without spilling another pizza into a customer's lap is Michelle's only goal tonight.2. Lakesha hopes to win the approval of her mother by going to the family reunion.3. His hope is to win.SubjectDirect objectcomplement
10 The GerundA Gerund ends in -ing, and functions as a noun. It isa verbal phrase, since it does look like a verb!FunctionsSubjectDirect ObjectComplementObject of a PrepositionSwimming is my favorite activity.I hope you appreciate my offering you this chance.My favorite activity is sleeping.The police arrested him for speeding.
11 Gerund Practice Skydiving can be dangerous. 2. Singing is fun. Identify the Gerund and tell how it is used:Skydiving can be dangerous.2. Singing is fun.3. Walking around the zoo is a great form of entertainment.4. By saving, we will be able to care for our families.SubjectSubjectSubjectObject of preposition
12 The participle A participle is a word/phrase used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. It isa verbal phrase, since it does look like a verb!Removing his coat, Jack rushed to his mother.Children introduced to music early become very intelligent..The phrase is an adjective modifying Jack.The phrase is an adjective modifying which children.ALWAYS AN Adjective
13 Important notes about participles: A participle is a verbal ending in -ing (present) or -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n (past) that functions as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun.A participial phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).Participles and participial phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated.A participial phrase is set off with commas when it:a) comes at the beginning of a sentenceb) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential elementc) comes at the end of a sentence and is separated from the word it modifies.Avoid dangling participles