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The job of the colon is simple: to introduce. 1. Use a colon to introduce a list: There are three countries in North America: Mexico, the USA and Canada.

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Presentation on theme: "The job of the colon is simple: to introduce. 1. Use a colon to introduce a list: There are three countries in North America: Mexico, the USA and Canada."— Presentation transcript:

1 The job of the colon is simple: to introduce. 1. Use a colon to introduce a list: There are three countries in North America: Mexico, the USA and Canada. We can see many things in the sky at night: the moon, stars, planets, comets, planes and even satellites. 2. Actually, you can use a colon to introduce a single item, especially when you want to emphasize that item: We were all waiting for the hero of the evening: John. There is one thing that he will not accept: stupidity. The job of the colon is simple: to introduce. 3. Use a colon to introduce direct speech or a quotation: He stood up and said loudly: "Ladies and Gentlemen, please be seated." John whispered in my ear: "Have you seen Andrea?" As Confucius once wrote: "When words lose their meaning, people lose their freedom." 4. Use a colon to introduce an explanation: We had to cancel the party: too many people were sick. There is no need to rush: the meeting will be starting one hour late. 5. Use a colon to introduce examples, as shown above. For example, item 1 above reads "Use a colon to introduce a list" and ends with a colon followed by two example sentences.

2 The colon A colon consists of two dots, one above the other: The colon is often used to introduce a list of items. or You can also use a colon to introduce an explanation or a definition of something Warm-up: Try writing two sentences that contain a colon.

3 The semicolon is another important tool; it can serve two important functions: as a connector between two sentences and as a super comma. 1) To Connect Two Sentences The semicolon is most often used to connect two sentences. Obviously, the sentences ought to be relatively close in content. Writing generally puts together complex items and shows how they relate. A semicolon is an economical way to join two sentences, and therefore two ideas, to illustrate their relationship. For example, review the following sentences: Jim is a good typist; he makes few mistakes. The AFC Corporation is an excellent company to invest in; its investments have risen sharply and steadily over each of the last ten years. Ms. Sanchez is a successful real estate salesperson; however, she was unable to sell her own house. Remember to have a complete sentence on both sides of the semicolon. If the second sentence begins with a conjunction (and, but, or, etc.), the semicolon is not necessary because the conjunction and the comma that usually goes with it are equivalent to a semicolon. Instead, combine two full sentences with the semicolon.

4 2) As Super comma Normally, commas separate the members of a list, as in this sentence: I have just bought shares in IBM, USAG, and ITT. The commas indicate where one item ends and the next begins. Sometimes, however, a list of complex items and one (or more) of the items already contains a comma. Such a case may cause confusion about what is really a member of the list and what is not. A semi-colon, working as sort of a super comma, can prevent this confusion. The sentence below illustrates how the super comma works: Suncom Corporation has subsidiaries in four cities: New York, New York, Wilmington, Ohio, Houston, Texas, and San Francisco, California. This sentence contains too many commas, both between the members of the list and within them. Instead, a semicolon, or super comma, between each of the members can clarify the meaning: Suncom Corporation has subsidiaries in four cities: New York, New York; Wilmington, Ohio; Houston, Texas; and San Francisco, California.

5 The semicolon A semicolon consists of a comma with a dot above it The semicolon is often used to join together two independent clauses — in other words, it joins two clauses that could be sentences. One more very common use of the semi-colon is to join two clauses using a transition such as however, therefore, or on the other hand. The semicolon can also clarify meaning between members of a list that contain multiple commas. Ex) New York, New York; Dallas, Texas; San Francisco, California Warm-up: Try writing two sentences that contain a semicolon.

6 The appositive phrase An appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows. It is set off by commas unless closely tied to the word that it identifies or renames. ("Closely tied" means that it is needed to identify the word.) Examples: My son Carl is a medical technician. (no commas) Badger, our dog with a missing leg, has a love for cats. (commas needed) Appositives should not be confused with predicate nominatives. A verb will separate the subject from the predicate nominative. An appositive can follow any noun or pronoun including the subject, direct object, or predicate nominative. Warm-up: Try writing two sentences that contain appositive phrases.

7 The hyphen Use a hyphen in compound numbers between twenty-one and ninety-nine and when used in larger numbers like two hundred fifty-five. (Note that you do not use an and between any of the numbers as that would indicate a decimal point.) Ordinal numbers such as thirty-first, seventy-second need hyphens also. Warm-up: Try writing two sentences that contain a hyphen.

8 The subordinating conjunction A conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases, or clauses. Subordinate conjunctions join dependent clauses (a sentence that must be attached to another clause to make sense) to independent clauses (a sentence that makes sense by itself). Some common subordinate conjunctions are after, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, while. Ex) After running five miles around the track, Henry was much too tired to go to basketball practice. Now that Maria has earned enough money, she can finally buy the concert tickets. Warm-up: Try writing two sentences that contain a subordinate conjunction.

9 Recognize a clause when you see one. Clauses come in four types: main [or independent], subordinate [or dependent], adjective [or relative], and noun. Every clause has at least a subject and a verb. Other characteristics will help you distinguish one type of clause from another.mainsubordinateadjectivenoun subjectverb Independent/Main Clauses Every main clause will follow this pattern:main clause subject + verb = complete thought. Here are some examples: Lazy students whine. Students = subject; whine = verb. Cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter. Cola = subject; spilled, splashed = verbs.

10 Subordinate Clauses A subordinate clause will follow this pattern:subordinate clause subordinate conjunction + subject + verb = incomplete thought. Here are some examples: Whenever lazy students whine Whenever = subordinate conjunction; students = subject; whine = verb. As cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter As = subordinate conjunction; cola = subject; spilled, splashed = verbs. **The important point to remember about subordinate clauses is that they can never stand alone as complete sentences. To complete the thought, you must attach each subordinate clause to a main clause. Check out these revisions to the subordinate clauses above: Whenever lazy students whine, Mrs. Russell throws chalk erasers at their heads. Anthony ran for the paper towels as cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter.

11 Relative Clauses A relative clause will begin with a relative pronoun [such as who, whom, whose, which, or that] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why]. The patterns look like these:relative clauserelative pronounrelative adverb relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb = incomplete thought. relative pronoun as subject + verb = incomplete thought. Here are some examples: Whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalk eraser Whom = relative pronoun; Mrs. Russell = subject; hit = verb. Where he chews and drools with great enthusiasm Where = relative adverb; he = subject; chews, drools = verbs. **Like subordinate clauses, relative clauses cannot stand alone as complete sentences. You must connect them to main clauses to finish the thought. Look at these revisions of the relative clauses above: The lazy students whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalk eraser soon learned to keep their complaints to themselves.

12 Noun Clauses Any clause that functions as a noun becomes a noun clause.noun clause Look at this example: You really do not want to know the ingredients in Aunt Nancy's stew. Ingredients = noun. If we replace the noun ingredients with a clause, we have a noun clause: You really do not want to know what Aunt Nancy adds to her stew. What Aunt Nancy adds to her stew = noun clause.

13 The clause A clause is just a notch more complicated than a phrase. Like a phrase, a clause is used as a particular part of speech or part of a sentence; however, unlike a phrase, a clause has a verb and its subject. Independent and subordinate are the two main types of clauses. Warm-up: Try writing five sentences that contain a clause.


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