Presentation on theme: "AP English Language and Composition"— Presentation transcript:
1AP English Language and Composition Complex SentencesGrammar #5AP English Language and CompositionMr. BennetMs. MillerMrs. Verhaegen
2Review of Clauses Independent Clause An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a simple sentence.Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.Dependent ClauseA dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
3Complex SentencesSimple Sentence- Consists of just one independent clause with a period at the end.Compound Sentence- Consists of two or more independent clauses held together by either:a comma and a coordinating conjunctionjust a semicolonan independent word marker and a semicolonComplex Sentence- Consists of one dependent clause and one independent clause held together by a dependent word marker and a comma (if and only if the dependent clause comes first– otherwise there is no comma).
4Joining Sentences with Subordinators (aka subordinating conjunctions/ dependent marker words) Subordinators- help us show a variety of relationships between ideasWhen we place a subordinator at the beginning of an independent clause, it becomes a dependent clause.Remember a dependent clause cannot stand on it’s own, so it must be joined to an independent clause.Punctuation- When the subordinate clause comes first in a sentence, it is always followed by a comma. If the independent clause comes first, there is NO comma.
5Logical Relationships Chart SubordinatorLogical RelationshipExamplealthough, though, even though, while, whereascontrastAlthough I am a senior, I have 40 more units to take.because, sinceresult/causeSchool is taking longer because I have to work.ifconditionI can go to the movies if I finish my homework.unlessI cannot go to the movies unless I finish my homework.before, after, when, whenever, until, as soon astime/sequenceI’ll try to finish my homework before I go to the movies.
6Combine the Sentences with Coordinators Directions: Combine the following pairs of sentences using subordinators. Make the underlined sentences into the subordinate or dependent clause; the logical relationship is given in brackets.Cockroaches are a health menace to humans. They carry viruses and bacteria that cause disease from hepatitis to salmonella. [result/cause]Humans try to defeat the cockroaches. Cockroaches are very successful at surviving. [contrast]Cockroaches are smaller that the humans who chase them. They have extremely fast responses and sensitive receptors. [contrast]There is no food. Cockroaches subsist on glue, paper, and soap. [condition]They can’t find glue, paper or soap. They draw on body stores for three months. [condition]
7And the Answers…Since They carry viruses and bacteria that cause disease from hepatitis to salmonella, cockroaches are a health menace to humans. (because also works) or: Cockroaches are a health menace to humans since they carry viruses and bacteria that cause disease from hepatitis to salmonella.While Humans try to defeat the cockroaches, Cockroaches are very successful at surviving.Although cockroaches are smaller that the humans who chase them, they have extremely fast responses and sensitive receptors.If there is no food, cockroaches subsist on glue, paper, and soap. Or Cockroaches subsist on glue, paper, and soap if there is no food.If they can’t find glue, paper or soap, they draw on body stores for three months. Or They draw on body stores for three months if they can’t find glue, paper or soap.