Presentation on theme: "Complex Sentences Grammar #5 AP English Language and Composition Mr. Bennet Ms. Miller Mrs. Verhaegen."— Presentation transcript:
Complex Sentences Grammar #5 AP English Language and Composition Mr. Bennet Ms. Miller Mrs. Verhaegen
Review of Clauses Independent Clause An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a simple sentence. Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz. Dependent Clause A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word. Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz... (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
Complex Sentences Simple Sentence- Consists of just one independent clause with a period at the end. Compound Sentence- Consists of two or more independent clauses held together by either: a comma and a coordinating conjunction just a semicolon an independent word marker and a semicolon Complex Sentence- Consists of one dependent clause and one independent clause held together by a dependent word marker and a comma (if and only if the dependent clause comes first– otherwise there is no comma).
Joining Sentences with Subordinators (aka subordinating conjunctions/ dependent marker words) Subordinators- help us show a variety of relationships between ideas When we place a subordinator at the beginning of an independent clause, it becomes a dependent clause. Remember a dependent clause cannot stand on its own, so it must be joined to an independent clause. Punctuation- When the subordinate clause comes first in a sentence, it is always followed by a comma. If the independent clause comes first, there is NO comma.
Logical Relationships Chart SubordinatorLogical RelationshipExample although, though, even though, while, whereas contrastAlthough I am a senior, I have 40 more units to take. because, sinceresult/causeSchool is taking longer because I have to work. ifconditionI can go to the movies if I finish my homework. unlessconditionI cannot go to the movies unless I finish my homework. before, after, when, whenever, until, as soon as time/sequenceIll try to finish my homework before I go to the movies.
Combine the Sentences with Coordinators Directions: Combine the following pairs of sentences using subordinators. Make the underlined sentences into the subordinate or dependent clause; the logical relationship is given in brackets. 1.Cockroaches are a health menace to humans. They carry viruses and bacteria that cause disease from hepatitis to salmonella. [result/cause] 2.Humans try to defeat the cockroaches. Cockroaches are very successful at surviving. [contrast] 3.Cockroaches are smaller that the humans who chase them. They have extremely fast responses and sensitive receptors. [contrast] 4.There is no food. Cockroaches subsist on glue, paper, and soap. [condition] 5.They cant find glue, paper or soap. They draw on body stores for three months. [condition]
And the Answers… 1.Since They carry viruses and bacteria that cause disease from hepatitis to salmonella, cockroaches are a health menace to humans. (because also works) or: Cockroaches are a health menace to humans since they carry viruses and bacteria that cause disease from hepatitis to salmonella. 2.While Humans try to defeat the cockroaches, Cockroaches are very successful at surviving. 3.Although cockroaches are smaller that the humans who chase them, they have extremely fast responses and sensitive receptors. 4.If there is no food, cockroaches subsist on glue, paper, and soap. Or Cockroaches subsist on glue, paper, and soap if there is no food. 5.If they cant find glue, paper or soap, they draw on body stores for three months. Or They draw on body stores for three months if they cant find glue, paper or soap.