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Essential Question What were the primary causes of the Civil War? What were the primary causes of the Civil War?

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Question What were the primary causes of the Civil War? What were the primary causes of the Civil War?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Question What were the primary causes of the Civil War? What were the primary causes of the Civil War?

2 Slavery and Western Expansion

3 The Missouri Compromise 1819 – Missouri applied for statehood 1819 – Missouri applied for statehood 11 slave states 11 slave states 11 free states 11 free states

4 Missouri Compromise Missouri requested to enter as a slave state Missouri requested to enter as a slave state How to maintain the balance in Congress between slave and free? How to maintain the balance in Congress between slave and free?

5 Missouri Compromise Proposed by Henry Clay (KY) Proposed by Henry Clay (KY) Maine admitted as a free state Maine admitted as a free state Missouri admitted as a slave state Missouri admitted as a slave state

6 Missouri Compromise No slavery in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of Latitude 36/30 (Missouris southern border) No slavery in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of Latitude 36/30 (Missouris southern border)

7 Missouri Compromise

8 Quote, Thomas Jefferson This momentous question, like a firebell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell [funeral bell] of the Union. It is hushed, indeed, for the moment. But this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence.

9 Results of the Mexican War Increased tension between the North and the South Increased tension between the North and the South Should slavery spread westward to the new territories? Should slavery spread westward to the new territories?

10 Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot (Democrat from PA) David Wilmot (Democrat from PA) Proposed no slavery in any territory gained from Mexico Proposed no slavery in any territory gained from Mexico Angered Southerners Angered Southerners

11 Popular Sovereignty Proposed by Lewis Cass Proposed by Lewis Cass Citizens of new territories would vote on the slavery issue Citizens of new territories would vote on the slavery issue

12 California After the gold rush increases its population, California applied to become a state After the gold rush increases its population, California applied to become a state

13 The Compromise of 1850 Reading the text on page 323 of your textbook, describe the six major resolutions of Clays compromise, then indicate whether the North or the South would most benefit from each. Reading the text on page 323 of your textbook, describe the six major resolutions of Clays compromise, then indicate whether the North or the South would most benefit from each. Use the chart on your worksheet. Use the chart on your worksheet.

14 Compromise of CA admitted as a free state 2. Popular sovereignty in NM and UT 3. Resolve TX border dispute with NM 4. Pay TX $10 million 5. Abolish slave trade in DC 6. New Fugitive Slave Act

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16 Fugitive Slave Act Southern slaveowners traveled north to track down escaped slaves Southern slaveowners traveled north to track down escaped slaves Northerners did not want to assist southerners in recapturing slaves Northerners did not want to assist southerners in recapturing slaves

17 Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience Unjust laws exist. Shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once?

18 Mounting Violence

19 Kansas-Nebraska Act Desire to open northern Plains to settlement Desire to open northern Plains to settlement Led by Stephen Douglas (IL) Led by Stephen Douglas (IL)

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21 Kansas-Nebraska Act Repealed the Missouri Compromise Repealed the Missouri Compromise Divided territory into two states: Kansas and Nebraska Divided territory into two states: Kansas and Nebraska Allow popular sovereignty to determine the issue of slavery Allow popular sovereignty to determine the issue of slavery

22 Kansas-Nebraska Act Passed in May 1854 Passed in May 1854 Northerners hurried to Kansas to make an anti-slave majority Northerners hurried to Kansas to make an anti-slave majority

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24 Bleeding Kansas Slave supporters from Missouri attacked Kansas residents, voted illegally Slave supporters from Missouri attacked Kansas residents, voted illegally Became a territorial civil war Became a territorial civil war

25 Lawrence, Kansas

26 Caning of Charles Sumner May 1856 – Charles Sumner (MA) accused slave supporters in the Senate of corruption in Kansas May 1856 – Charles Sumner (MA) accused slave supporters in the Senate of corruption in Kansas Preston Brooks (southern Congressman) caned Sumner Preston Brooks (southern Congressman) caned Sumner

27 Caning of Charles Sumner Southerners considered Brooks a hero – gave him canes inscribed with Hit Him Again Southerners considered Brooks a hero – gave him canes inscribed with Hit Him Again Northerners strengthened determination to resist slavery Northerners strengthened determination to resist slavery

28 Dred Scott Decision Attempt by the Supreme Court to settle the decision about slavery in the western territories Attempt by the Supreme Court to settle the decision about slavery in the western territories Southern majority of judges Southern majority of judges

29 Dred Scott Slave who traveled with owner from Missouri to free territory for many years Slave who traveled with owner from Missouri to free territory for many years Sued for freedom after his masters death Sued for freedom after his masters death

30 Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney Ruled against Dred Scott by claiming African Americans were not citizens Ruled against Dred Scott by claiming African Americans were not citizens

31 Quote, Roger B. Taney It is the opinion of the Court that the act of Congress which prohibited a citizen from holding and owning [enslaved persons] in the territory of the United States north of the line therein mentioned is not warranted by the Constitution and is therefore void.

32 Dred Scott Decision Stated the federal government could not deny slavery in any territories of the United States Stated the federal government could not deny slavery in any territories of the United States

33 John Browns Raid Abolitionist Abolitionist Attempted to seize the federal arsenal of weapons at Harpers Ferry, VA Attempted to seize the federal arsenal of weapons at Harpers Ferry, VA Wanted to lead an insurrection of slaves Wanted to lead an insurrection of slaves

34 John Browns Raid Oct. 16, 1859 Oct. 16, 1859 Brown took control of the arsenal Brown took control of the arsenal U.S. Marines captured him U.S. Marines captured him Tried and executed Tried and executed

35 Browns Statement to the Court I believe that to have interfered as I have done... I have done no wrong, but right. Now it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice and mingle my blood... With the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel and unjust enactments, I say, let it be done!

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37 Southern Response Believed northerners were plotting the murder of slaveowners Believed northerners were plotting the murder of slaveowners Georgia Senator Robert Toombs, Defend yourselves! The enemy is at your door! Georgia Senator Robert Toombs, Defend yourselves! The enemy is at your door!


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