Presentation on theme: "The Road to Secession - 1850. Would territory gained from Mexican-American War be free or slave? California requested admission as a free state South."— Presentation transcript:
The Road to Secession
Would territory gained from Mexican-American War be free or slave? California requested admission as a free state South objects – would upset balance in Senate Henry Clay drafts a compromise
WILMOT PROVISO Proposed bill by David Wilmot (Democrat) Passed the House but not the Senate –1. Slavery not allowed in Mexican Cession (territory won from Mexico –2. against Missouri Compromise –3. land in Mexican cession would be free. –4. Southerners angry with this
Henry Clay’s Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state Rest of Mexican Cession = popular sovereignty (let the people decide!) Abolition of slave trade in DC New strict Fugitive Slave Law
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Law causes problems this law allowed slaveowners to recapture their slaves that escaped to the North Anthony Burns – 50,000 people lined the streets of Boston to watch him taken back to Virginia & slavery
Reading So what happened to Anthony Burns?
Northern reaction to Fugitive Slave Act Personal Liberty Laws passed Illegal to actively assist in the capture of a fugitive slave
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Best-selling novel about the sufferings of slaves “So you’re the little lady that started this big war” Abraham Lincoln Book described the experiences of Uncle Tom, a slave severely mistreated by his master, Simon Legree Harriet Beecher Stowe
Staged versions convinced northern workers of evils of slavery
Ostend Manifesto Manifest Destiny is still a popular idea US tried to buy Cuba; Spain rejected offer American ministers to Spain,England, and France meet in Ostend, Belgium: They create a document stating: If Spain did not sell Cuba to the US, the Us would take it by force. South-->did not want Cuba to become a free Black republic b/c of possibility that their slaves would flee to Cuba for freedom North→ this is an attempt to add more slave territory to the Union!
Kansas Nebraska Act Stephen A Douglas (ILL) – supports a northern route for a transcontinental RR to develop the west He also wants to become president, but needs southern support. How will he do this? Creates this act that presents the idea of popular sovereignty Popular Sovereignty: The people would decide if Kansas-Nebraska would be slave or free One of leading causes of Civil War
Missouri Compromise is repealed!
Results of Kansas-Nebraska Act Missouri Compromise is repealed – territory above could have slavery if voted on by people (popular sovereignty) How do you think Northerners felt? The republican Party is formed – dedicated to stopping the spread of slavery into new territory Kansas becomes a battle ground
“Bleeding Kansas”- unofficial start of the Civil War! “border ruffians” = pro-slavery Missourians
BEECHERS BIBLES Henry Ward Beecher. collected funds provide abolitionists settlers in Kansas with guns. These firearms, precision rifles, came to be called "Beecher's Bibles,”
ATTACKS On May 1856, antislavery settlers or free-soilers were attacked by Border Ruffians in Lawrence, Kansas. John Brown & sons attack pro-slavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek → Brown comes to national attention
“Crime against Kansas” Charles Sumner (Mass.) delivers speech criticizing South Preston Brooks (So. Carolina) attacks Sumner on floor of Senate Both seen as heroes! Popular sovereignty does not keep slavery off the floor of Congress!
Dred Scott With help of abolitionists, sued for his freedom in court on basis that he had once lived in free territory
Dred Scott not a citizen nor is any slavery; therefore, he could not bring case to court Constitution does not give Congress power to make any decision about slavery (5 th Amendment – gov’t can not deprive citizen of property!) Chief Justice Roger Taney – from slave state of Maryland
John Brown - again Gets money from northern abolitionists to Goal = seize weapons at a federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, distribute weapons to slaves in surrounding areas Believes this will start a full scale slave rebellion
Distribution of slaves in antebellum South Although Brown’s raid fails, South believes northern abolitionists are going to provoke slaves to rebel!
Election of 1860 John C. Breckenridge – Southern Democrat Stephen A. Douglas - Democrat John Bell – Constitutional Union Abraham Lincoln – Republican vs √
Why does Lincoln win the election of 1860? Democratic vote was divided Republicans focused on issues other than slavery – cheap land, federal $$ for roads and RRs