3Personality Personality refers to unique differences An individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situationsTwo key componentsPersonality refers to unique differencesPersonality is presumed to be stable & enduring
4Psychodynamic Theories Psychodynamic theories see behavior as a product of psychological forced within the individual, often outside conscious awarenessFive propositions common to all psychodynamic theoriesMuch of mental life is unconsciousMental processes such as emotions, motivations & thought may conflict with one anotherEarly childhood experiences strongly affect personality developmentOur mental representation of ourselves and others guides our interactions with othersDevelopment of personality involves learning to regulate sexual and aggressive urges
6Sigmund Freud Best known of psychodynamic theorists Freud was first to stress the unconsciousThe unconscious is all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are normally not awareFreud’s ideas form the basis for psychoanalysis
7Psychoanalytic Approach Developed by Sigmund FreudPsychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personalityEmphasizes unconscious motivation - the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mindKeywords: psychoanalytic approach, unconscious motivationGraphics: picture of Freud pg. 420 Myers
9Psychoanalytic Approach ConsciousUnconsciousSuperegoPreconsciousIdEgoInformationwhich caneasily bemadeconsciousThoughts,feelings,urges and otherinformationthat is difficultto bring toawarenessin yourimmediateRational,planning,mediatingdimensionof personalityMoralistic,judgmental,perfectionistdimension ofpersonalityIrrational,illogical,impulsive
10Conscious - all things we are aware of at any given moment UnconsciousSuperegoPreconsciousIdEgoKeywords: conscious, preconscious, unconsciousGraphics: fig pg. 475 Hockenbury
11Preconscious - everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness UnconsciousSuperegoPreconsciousIdEgoKeywords: conscious, preconscious, unconsciousGraphics: fig pg. 475 Hockenbury
12Unconscious - inaccessible warehouse of anxiety-producing thoughts and drives SuperegoPreconsciousIdEgoKeywords: conscious, preconscious, unconsciousGraphics: fig pg. 475 Hockenbury
13Psychoanalytic Divisions of the Mind Id - instinctual drives present at birthdoes not distinguish between reality and fantasyoperates according to the pleasure principleEgo - develops out of the id in infancyunderstands reality and logicmediator between id and superegoSuperego - develops over timeinternalization of society’s moral standardsresponsible for guiltKeywords: idGraphics: fig pg. 475 Hockenbury
14IdCollection of unconscious urges and desired that continually seek expressionOperates according to the Pleasure Principle i.e. seeks immediate pleasure and to avoid painOperates entirely in the unconscious mind
15EgoMediates between reality, conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id)Operates according to the Reality PrincipleOperates at the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious levels
16Superego Ego Ideal Conscience The social and parental standards that have been internalizedConscienceOur sense of moralityEgo IdealThe standard of what one would like to beWe are not born with the superego, but it develops over timeOperates at the conscious, preconscious & unconscious levels
17Freud’s Development of Personality Freud believed that personality development is the result of various ways in which the sexual instinct (also called the libido) is satisfied during the course of lifeThere are several stages, each focusing on different bodily areasThese stages are called the psychosexual stages
18Defense MechanismsAnxiety is produced when the ego cannot satisfy the demands of the id in a way acceptable to the superegoThis anxiety causes feelings of uneasiness and worryEgo may employ any of a number of defense mechanisms to protect the conscious mind from this anxiety
19Defense Mechanisms Denial Repression Projection Identification Refusal to acknowledge a painful realityRepressionUnpleasant thoughts are excluded from consciousnessProjectionAttributing one’s feelings, motives, wishes on/to othersIdentificationTaking on traits of others to avoid feeling incompetentRegressionReverting to childlike behavior
20Defense Mechanisms Intellectualization Reaction Formation Displacement Thinking about stressful problems in an abstract way to detach oneself from themReaction FormationExpression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are opposite of true feelingsDisplacementShift repressed motives from an original object to a substitute objectSublimationRedirecting repressed motives and feelings into socially acceptable activities
21Defense Mechanisms--Activity Choose Five (5) of the mechanisms and prepare brief scenarios representing each.Depth 2-3 sentences…just be sure to fully explain the response/reaction to clearly connect w/mechanism.DenialRepressionProjectionIdentificationRegressionIntellectualizationReaction FormationDisplacementSublimation
22Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Were Freud’s theoriesthe “best of his time”or were they simplyincorrect?Current researchcontradictsmany of Freud’sspecific ideasDevelopment does notstop in childhoodSlips of the tongue arelikely competing“nodes” in memory networkDreams may not beunconsciousdrives and wishes
23Freud’s Ideas as Scientific Theory Theories must explain observationsand offer testable hypothesesFew Objective ObservationsFew HypothesesFreud’s theories based on his recollections &interpretations of patients’ free associations,dreams & slips of the tongueDoes Not PREDICT Behavior or Traits
24Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories Culture-bound ideasFreud made no connection between women’s subordinate status in society and their sense of inferiorityPsychodymanic theories are largely untestable in any scientific way
25Post-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories Carl Jung: Collective UnconsciousAlfred Adler: Individual PsychologyKaren Horney: Focus on SecurityErik Erikson: Psychosocial DevelopmentTHEN…HUMANISTS:Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of NeedsCarl Rogers: Person-Centered PerspectiveKeywords: Karen Horney, object relations theories, Alfred Adler, Erik Erikson, Carl JungGraphics: pics. of Horney pg. 484, Adler pg. 485 of Hockenbury, pic. of Jung pg. 425 Hockenbury, pic. of Erikson pg.407 Hockenbury
26Carl Jung Shared Freud’s emphasis on unconscious processes Personal UnconsciousThat part of the unconscious mind containing an individuals thoughts and feelingsCollective UnconsciousThe part of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species
27Archetypes Ideas/categories in the collective unconscious Examples of archetypesPersonaOur public selfAnimaFemale archetype as expressed in male personalityAnimusMale archetype as expressed in female personality
28Jung’s five (5) main archetypes: The Self: the regulating center of the psyche and facilitator of individuationThe Shadow: the opposite of the ego image, often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with, but possesses nonethelessThe Anima: the feminine image in a man's psyche or The Animus: the masculine image in a woman's psycheThe Persona: how we present to the world, usually protects the Ego from negative images(acts like a mask)
29Anima Projection:The unindividuated man identifies with those personal qualities that are symbolically masculine.He develops these potentialities and to some extent integrates their unconscious influences into his conscious personality.However, he does not recognize qualities that are symbolically feminine as part of his own personality but rather projects them onto women.
30Anima Projection:The unindividuated man identifies with those personal qualities that are symbolically masculine.He will project his anima—those particular characteristics and potentialities that are significant components of his personal unconscious and therefore carry a special emotional charge—onto a few women for whom he will then feel a strong and compelling emotion (usually positive but occasionally negative).Infatuation (an instant, powerful attraction for a woman about whom he knows little) is one of the signs of anima projection, as is a compulsive possessiveness.
32Animus Projection:The unindividuated woman identifies with those personal qualities that are symbolically feminine.She develops these potentialities and to some extent integrates their unconscious influences into her conscious personality.However, she does not recognize qualities that are symbolically masculine as part of her own personality but rather projects them onto men.
33Animus Projection:The unindividuated woman identifies with those personal qualities that are symbolically feminine.She will project her animus—those particular characteristics and potentialities that are significant components of her personal unconscious and therefore carry a special emotional charge—onto a few men for whom she will then feel a strong and compelling emotion (usually positive but occasionally negative).Infatuation (an instant, powerful attraction for a man about whom she knows little) is one of the signs of animus projection, as is a compulsive possessiveness.
35Anima Possession: Since the unindividuated man has not consciously developed any of his symbolically feminine qualities (e.g. emotion, need for relatedness), his personality is apt to be taken over or "possessed" by these qualities at times, so that his emotional behavior and relationships may be acted out in childish and immature ways that are apparent to others but not to him.
36Animus Possession: Since the unindividuated woman has not consciously developed any of her symbolically masculine qualities (e.g. logic, leadership, need for independence), her personality is apt to be taken over or "possessed" by these qualities at times, so that she appears opinionated, argumentative, or domineering to others, though she will not think of herself that way.
37Anima/Animus Integration: We can avoid anima/animus possession and withdraw projections by integrating the contrasexual archetype into consciousness, realizing we are cutting off our human potential by recognizing and developing only those symbolic qualities that match the sex of our bodies.Androgyny is symbolized in narratives through achievement of a special bond (frequently sexual union/marriage) between the ego-bearer and the anima/animus figure.Integration of the Anima/Animus is often termed Androgyny.
38Attitude Types Extraverts Introverts Focus on external world & social lifeIntrovertsFocus on internal thoughts & feelingsJung felt that everyone had both qualities, but one is usually dominant
39Personality Types Rational individuals Irrational individuals People who regulate their actions through thinking and feelingIrrational individualsPeople who base their actions on perceptions, either through their senses or intuition
40TYPE A: “THE competitor/achiever“ TYPE B: “THE SOCIALIZER/dreamer” Personality TypesTYPE A: “THE competitor/achiever“TYPE B: “THE SOCIALIZER/dreamer”TYPE C: “the detailed designer“TYPE D: “the reticent, yet reliable ”
41TYPE A: “Competitor/Achiever”. Risk taker. Very independent TYPE A: “Competitor/Achiever” * Risk taker * Very independent * Direct, to the point (blunt): may alienate coworkers * Dislike routine * Competitive / Driven / High Achievers * Entrepreneurs/Business/Government leaders * Embrace change: especially if their idea * Look for practical solutions * Prone to High Blood Pressure * High sense of time urgency * Often work on own projects, not willing to share or delegate * Prone to being “workaholic” * Studies reveal Type A's generally felt insecure at one point of their lives and so they decided to fight the insecurity by changing their lives and making achievements as fast as they can.
42TYPE B: “Socializer/Dreamer” *Highly extroverted *Love the spotlight: Entertaining *Charismatic *Relaxed/Easy-going *Dreaming vs. Doing *Creative & Imaginative *Patient & Philosophical *Non-competitive *Common in Sales and marketing *Can be achievers, but not as competitive as Type A's *May delay work and do it in the last moment *May be procrastinators *Often struggle with success due to procrastination, follow-through.
43TYPE C: “Detailed Designer” *Antithesis of Type “B” *Introverted *Detail-Oriented/Focused /Meticulous *May have trouble communicating to/with other people *Talented crunching numbers &/or writing program code *Tend to be very cautious and reserved *Will not venture into something until all facts ckd out *Can spend a lot of time trying to find out how things work and this makes them very suitable for technical jobs. e.g. accountants, programmers, and engineers *Not assertive and suppress their own desires even if there is something that they dislike *Lack of assertiveness tends to result in stress & depression *More vulnerable to depression compared to type A & type B.
44TYPE D: “Reticent, yet Reliable”. Antithesis of Type “A” TYPE D: “Reticent, yet Reliable” *Antithesis of Type “A” *Not adventurous *Resist change ~ Prefer routine * Work behind the scenes with predictable results * Reliable follower * Resist responsibility: prefer to be told what to do * Punctual, Consistent, Compliant * Social Inhibition * Pessimistic & Reticent * Lack of self assurance * May experience negative emotions like hostility, anxiety, anger, depressed mood, tension and view of self.* Research: 3X for future cardiovascular issues & risk for clinical depression, anxiety and poor mental health:“…due to increased levels of anxiety, irritation and depressed mood across situations and time, while not sharing these emotions with others because of fear of disapproval."
45Personality Types…but wait, there’s more…Not uncommon to find people with a blend of personalities, particularly A-B and C-D.These basic personality types explain why some people work well together and others do not.For example ~Type-A clashes with Type-D simply because one is more adventurous than the other, ~Type-B clashes with Type-C one exhibits extroverted personality-other introverted. ~Conversely, Type-A works well with Type-B ~And, Type-C works well with Type-D.
46Certainly, genetics may play a guiding role as the template. Personality Types…and lastly…Personality traits, though fairly embedded through our early years, can be -- and have been -- changed.There are many factors which design our primary types: Nature AND Nurture.Certainly, genetics may play a guiding role as the template.However, birth order, social experiences, activities, benchmark moments, belief systems, culture, necessity, demographic variables, family dynamics, etc. all play a role to some extent.
47Compensation Inferiority Complex Alfred Adler 1870 –1937 Our efforts to overcome real or perceived weaknessesInferiority ComplexFixation on feelings of personal inferiority that can lead to emotional and social paralysis
48Alfred AdlerSingle "drive" or motivating force behind all our behavior and experience.Motivating force the striving for perfection. -the desire we all have to fulfill our potentials, to come closer to our ideal.Basic motivation: compensation -striving to overcome.Our personalities = the ways in which we do -- or don't -- compensate or overcome those problems.
49Alfred AdlerStriving for superiority = Teleology.Unlike Freud, Adler saw motivation as a matter of moving towards the future, rather than being driven, mechanistically, by the past.So what makes so many of us self-interested?Adler says it's a matter of being overwhelmed by our Inferiority
50Alfred AdlerIf overwhelmed by the forces of inferiority -- whether it is your body hurting, people around you holding you in contempt, or just the general difficulties of growing up -- you develop an Inferiority Complex.Inferiority complex is a neurosis, a life-size problem One becomes shy & timid, insecure, indecisive, cowardly, submissive, compliant Begin to rely on people to carry you along, even manipulating them into supporting you
51Alfred Adler You can also develop a Superiority Complex. Superiority Complex involves covering up inferiority by pretending to be superior.Four psychological typesRuling type. They are, from childhood on, characterized by a tendency to be aggressive and dominant over others.Leaning type. They are sensitive people who have developed a shell around themselves which protects them, but they must rely on others to carry them through life's difficulties.
52Four psychological types cont. Alfred AdlerFour psychological types cont.Avoiding type The lowest levels of energy, only survive by avoiding life, especially other people.-When pushed to the limits, tend to become psychotic, retreating finally into their own personal worlds.Socially Useful type This is the healthy person, one who has both social interest and energy.
53Karen Horney (1885-1952) Neurotic trends Viewed anxiety as powerful motivating forceEnvironmental and social factors seen as importantNeurotic trendsIrrational strategies for coping w/ emotional problems
54Family Dynamics Karen's mother was more flexible. Karen had on-going conflicts with her strict father (a Sea Captain).Karen's mother was more flexible.She married man that shared some of these same authoritarian qualities.Her older brother, Brendt, was the ‘favorite’ childKaren felt that she had been unwanted.Karen was very attached to Brendt.
55Depression Karen Horney struggled w/ depression. Her struggles/difficulties helped her understand the dynamics of neurosis.Her analysis of neurosis has been recognized as very insightful, and her theories are enjoying a renewal of interest.
56The Cause of NeurosisMain source of neurosis: >feelings of anxiety, obsessive thoughts and a degree of social or interpersonal maladjustment.*in the experience of betrayal *in not being loved *in being helpless to bring about that love.
57Causes Lack of genuine warmth/affection for the child. Parent not necessarily abusive, but indifferent-- unaware of effects of her/his behavior on child.Translates into behaviors like:* Unjust reprimands * Unfulfilled promises * Unpredictable changes between scornful rejection and overindulgence * Ridiculing independent thinking * Spoiling child's interest in her/his pursuits.
58First reaction is hostility. But, as the child needs the parent, and hostility threatens that bond, hostility is repressed.The repression of basic hostility results in basic anxiety: feeling lonely and helpless in a hostile world.
59The "despised real self" says: “I Am not Worthy to Be Loved”The "despised real self" says:I am truly a disgraceful creature, a bad person, someone that no one can truly love…
60But I Should…The Ideal Self says: “People would love me if I were kinder, more athletic, more outgoing, more unselfish, a better friend, parent, mate.”They would love me if I were more courageous, more disciplined, achieved more…”This is a Neurotic Solution to the conflict --as no one can be such a person.
61The Tyranny of the “Shoulds” A person can be driven by these demands of the ideal self.These demands are impossible, the attempts to satisfy the "shoulds" is bound to fail.Thus, self hate & feelings of false guilt increase, as well as despair & helplessness.
62Alienation from the Self When succumbing to the tyranny of the "shoulds" individuals will:Hate themselves, not want to really know themselves, want to run from themselvesLose their own creativity as they strive to pleaseFeel despair -- helpless in the face of their own behavior.
63Horney's Concept of the Self The Actual self: the person you actually are --regardless of anyone's perceptionsThe Real self: the core of your being, your potential, need to be who you are truly (the subjective view of the actual self).The Despised Real self: negative view of the self, based on the lack of love and acceptance by others.The Ideal self: the perfect self you think you should be, so you can be loved.
64How can I keep you from hurting me? I'll be so nice… helpful, conforming, self-effacing solution, moving toward peopleI'll control things, manipulate, exploit, attack if needed: the expansive solution of moving against peopleI'll grow my own protective shell, be independent, rebellious, or not look at painful things: the resignation solution: moving away from people
65If those Defensive Strategies Become a Lifestyle Moving toward people leads to a COMPLIANT personality with these traits:Need for affection and approvalNeed for a dominant partnerMoving against people leads to an AGGRESSIVE personality with these traits:Need for power, exploitation, prestige, admirationNeed for achievementMoving away from people lead to a DETACHED personality with these traits:Need for perfectionSetting narrow limits to life
66Some Auxiliary Defenses (1) Externalization: Other people become the center of the neurotic's life. Result: feeling of inner emptiness.Creation of blind spots: Inability to see how different one is from one's ideal imageCompartmentalization: Between various areas of life e.g. business, family, church
67Auxiliary Defenses (2)Rationalization: e.g. I did this to make them happy (no--to make them like you)Excessive self-control: Don't want to be caught in any emotion, vulnerabilityArbitrary rightness: Seemingly impulsive decisions (to avoid the pain of real decision making) that are then rationalized.Elusiveness: Constant clouding of issuesCynicism: Assuming that self-interest is the only motivation in operation, and therefore behaving that way oneself.
68Humanistic Personality Theories Humanistic view asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their constant striving toward higher levels of functioningDoes not dwell on past occurrences, but rather focuses on the present and future
69Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation is when one is motivated by external factors, as opposed to the internal drivers of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation drives one to do things for tangible rewards or pressures, rather than for the fun of it.Example Supermarkets use loyalty cards and discounts, airlines use air miles, companies use bonuses and commissions. Extrinsic motivation is everywhere.
70Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is when one is motivated by internal factors, as opposed to the external drivers of extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation drives one to do things just for the fun of it, or because one believes it is a good or right thing to do.Example Most people's hobbies are intrinsically motivated. Notice the passion with which people collect items or build detailed models. Few people carry that passion into their workplace.
71Motivation Team Activity 1) Discuss activities, pursuits, etc. that you would consider intrinsically motivating for you.2) Discuss and respond to the statement below:There is no such thing as intrinsic motivation…we are always motivated by some extrinsic reward in al that we do.Agree? Disagree? Why?
72The Humanistic Perspective Maslow’sSelf-ActualizingPersonRoger’sPerson-CenteredPerspective“Healthy” rather than “Sick”Individual: greater than the sum of test scores
73Maslow & Self-Actualization the process of fufilling our potentialPhysiologicalSafetyLove NeedsEsteemStudied healthy, creative peopleEleanor Roosevelt, Abe Lincoln,Tom JeffersonSelf-Aware & Self-AcceptingOpen & SpontaneousLoving & CaringProblem-Centered not Self-Centered
74Abraham Maslow is a Humanistic Psychologist. Humanists do not believe that human beings are pushed and pulled by mechanical forces, either of stimuli and reinforcements (behaviorism) or of unconscious instinctual impulses (psychoanalysis).Humanists focus upon potentials.They believe that humans strive for an upper level of capabilities.
75Abraham Maslow developed a Theory of Motivation and Personality that has influenced a number of different fields, including education.This wide influence is due in part to the high level of practicality of Maslow's theory.This theory accurately describes many realities of personal experiences.
77Hierarchy Of NeedsPhysiological NeedsBiological needs: oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature, etc.The strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction.
78(2) SafetyAdults have little awareness of their security needs except in times of~emergency or ~periods of disorganization in the social structure (such as widespread rioting).Children often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe.
79(3) Love, Affection and Belongingness When needs for safety and physiological well-being are satisfied, the next class of needs for love, affection and belongingness can emerge.People seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation.Involves both giving and receiving love, affection & sense of belonging.
80(4) EsteemThese involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others.Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect and respect from others.When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident and valuable as a person in the world.When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless.
81(5) Self-Actualization When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then are the needs for self-actualization activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as:a person's need to be and do that which the person was "born to do." "A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write."These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness. The person feels on edge, tense, lacking something, in short, restless.If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted, or lacking self-esteem, it is very easy to know what the person is restless about. It is not always clear what a person wants when there is a need for self-actualization.
82(6) Peak Experiences Peak experiences are sudden feelings of intense happiness and well-being, and possibly the awareness of "ultimate truth" and the unity of all things.Accompanying these experiences is a heightened sense of control over the body and emotions, and a wider sense of awareness, as though one were standing upon a mountaintop.The experience fills individual w/ wonder & awe.She/he feels at one with the world and is pleased with it; she or he has seen the ultimate truth or the essence of all things.
84Maslow states that parents, mentors, teachers, etc Maslow states that parents, mentors, teachers, etc. should respond to the potential an individual has for growing into a self-actualizing person of his/her own kind. Ten points that should be addressed are listed:We should teach people to be authentic, to be aware of their inner selves and to hear their inner-feeling voices.We should teach people to transcend their cultural conditioning and become world citizens.We should help people discover their vocation in life, their calling, fate or destiny. This is especially focused on finding the right career and the right mate.
854. We should teach people that life is precious, that there is joy to be experienced in life, and if people are open to seeing the good and joyous in all kinds of situations, it makes life worth living.5. We must accept the person as he or she is and help the person learn their inner nature. From real knowledge of aptitudes and limitations we can know what to build upon, what potentials are really there.6. We must see that the person's basic needs are satisfied. This includes safety, belongingness, and esteem needs.
867. We should refresh consciousness, teaching the person to appreciate beauty and the other good things in nature and in living.8. We should teach people that controls are good, and complete abandon is bad. It takes control to improve the quality of life in all areas.9. We should teach people to transcend the trifling problems and grapple with the serious problems in life. These include the problems of injustice, of pain, suffering, and death.10. We must teach people to be good choosers. They must be given practice in making good choices.
87Maslow Team ActivityDiscuss where you are on the ‘pyramid’ – and share with your team.2) Discuss and respond to the statement below:One must have a depth and breadth of life experience(s) in order to truly achieve self-actualization and/or peak experiences.Agree? Disagree? Why?
88Erik Erikson Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Eight stages of developmentTrust vs. MistrustAutonomy vs. Shame & DoubtInitiative vs. GuiltIndustry vs. InferiorityIdentity vs. Role ConfusionIntimacy vs. IsolationGenerativity vs. StagnationEgo Integrity vs. Despair1902 –1994
89Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Preconventional (preadolescence)“Good” behavior is mostly to avoid punishment or seek rewardConventional (adolescence)Behavior is about pleasing others and, in later adolescence, becoming a good citizenPostconventionalEmphasis is on abstract principles such as justice, equality, and liberty
90Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory Research shows that many people never progress past the conventional levelTheory does not take cultural differences into accountTheory is considered by some to be sexist in that girls often scored lower on tests of morality