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Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 MASTERING THE WORLD OF PSYCHOLOGY 4e Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 MASTERING THE WORLD OF PSYCHOLOGY 4e Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 MASTERING THE WORLD OF PSYCHOLOGY 4e Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd 11

2 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Links to Learning Objectives PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES 11.1 What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality?What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality? 11.2 What is the role of psychosexual stages in Freud’s theory?What is the role of psychosexual stages in Freud’s theory? 11.3 How do modern psychologists evaluate Freud’s ideas?How do modern psychologists evaluate Freud’s ideas? 11.4 How do the views of the neo-Freudians differ from those of Freud?How do the views of the neo-Freudians differ from those of Freud? HUMANISTIC THEORIES 11.5 How do humanistic theorists explain personality?How do humanistic theorists explain personality? 11.6 What have psychologists learned about self-esteem?What have psychologists learned about self-esteem?

3 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 A person’s characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling ersonality

4 Psychoanalytic Theories

5 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Freud and Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis: Freud’s term for his theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders

6 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Freud’s Theory of Personality LO 11.1 What concepts did Freud propose to explain personality? ID Superego Ego Conscious: Everything we are thinking about at any given moment Preconscious: Thoughts and feelings we can easily bring to mind Unconscious: Thoughts and feelings that are difficult to call up because they have been repressed

7 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Denial Repression Projection Refusing to acknowledge consciously the existence of danger or a threatening situation Rationalization Regression Reaction Formation Displacement Sublimation Defense Mechanisms

8 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Involuntarily removing an unpleasant memory, thought, or perception from consciousness or barring disturbing sexual and aggressive impulses from consciousness Defense Mechanisms Denial Repression Projection Rationalization Regression Reaction Formation Displacement Sublimation

9 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Attributing one’s own undesirable traits, thoughts, behavior, or impulses to another Defense Mechanisms Denial Repression Projection Rationalization Regression Reaction Formation Displacement Sublimation

10 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Supplying a logical, rational, or socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action or event Defense Mechanisms Denial Repression Projection Rationalization Regression Reaction Formation Displacement Sublimation

11 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Reverting to a behavior that might have reduced anxiety at an earlier stage of development Defense Mechanisms Denial Repression Projection Rationalization Regression Reaction Formation Displacement Sublimation

12 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Expressing exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of disturbing, unconscious impulses and desires Defense Mechanisms Denial Repression Projection Rationalization Regression Reaction Formation Displacement Sublimation

13 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Substituting a less threatening object or person for the original object of a sexual or aggressive impulse Defense Mechanisms Denial Repression Projection Rationalization Regression Reaction Formation Displacement Sublimation

14 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Rechanneling sexual and aggressive energy into pursuits or accomplishments that society considers acceptable or even admirable Defense Mechanisms Denial Repression Projection Rationalization Regression Reaction Formation Displacement Sublimation

15 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 The Psychosexual Stages of Development LO 11.2 What is the role of the psychosexual stages in Freud’s theory? When: Birth to 1 year What occurs: Weaning; oral gratification from sucking, eating, biting When: 5 or 6 years to puberty What occurs: Period of sexual calm; interest in school, hobbies, same-sex friends When: 3 to 5 or 6 years What occurs: Oedipal conflict; sexual curiosity; masturbation When: 1 to 3 years What occurs: Toilet training; gratification from expelling and withholding feces When: Begins at puberty What occurs: Revival of sexual interests; establishment of mature sexual relationships LATENCY STAGE ANAL STAGE GENITAL STAGE ORAL STAGE PHALLIC (OEDIPAL) STAGE FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES

16 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Evaluating Freud’s Contribution Freud is credited with calling attention to: The unconscious The importance of early childhood experiences The role of defense mechanisms However, his theory is often criticized because it defies scientific testing. LO 11.3 How do modern psychologists evaluate Freud’s ideas?

17 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 The Neo-Freudians LO 11.4 How do the views of the neo-Freudians differ from those of Freud? Carl Jung Personality consists of three parts: Ego Personal unconscious Collective unconscious (archetypes)

18 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Alfred Adler The Neo-Freudians Predominant force of the personality is the drive to: Overcome and compensate for feelings of weakness and inferiority Strive for superiority or significance

19 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Karen Horney The Neo-Freudians Work centered on two main themes: The neurotic personality Feminine psychology

20 Humanistic Theories

21 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Two Humanistic Theories LO 11.5 How do humanistic theorists explain personality? Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers Self-actualization: Developing to one’s fullest potential Peak experiences: Experiences of deep meaning, insight, and harmony within oneself and with the universe Conditions of worth: Conditions on which the positive regard of others rests Unconditional positive regard: Unqualified caring and nonjudgmental acceptance of another

22 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Self-Esteem LO 11.6 What have psychologists learned about self-esteem? One source of variations in self-esteem arises from comparisons of actual to desired traits. Self-esteem is fairly stable from childhood through the late adult years. By age 7, most children have a sense of global self-esteem.

23 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Personality and Culture LO How do personality traits vary across cultures? Individualist cultures: Encourage people to view themselves as separate from others and to value independence and assertiveness Collectivist cultures: Emphasize social connectedness among people and encourage individuals to define themselves in terms of their social relationships

24 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control Self-efficacy: The perception a person has of his or her ability to perform competently whatever is attempted LO What do self-efficacy and locus of control contribute to personality?

25 Copyright © Pearson Education 2011 Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control Locus of Control: Internal: People who see themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences External: People who perceive what happens to them to be in the hands of fate, luck, or chance


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